Resilience 2.0: Computer-aided Disaster Management
Many factors (larger population, more dependency on technology, more human-caused interference in the natural systems and equilibria, climate changes,⋯) contribute to the seemingly growing number and severity of disasters. Additional exaggeration is generated by public media. As a consequence Disaster Prevention and Disaster Management must be given increased attention. The ultimate goal of Disaster Management is resilience of the affected system and thus the adequate and acceptable survival of the affected population.
We discuss system behavior in the case of an assault or disturbance: from being fragile (loss of their functionality due to the assault) to being resilient (having the capacity... of bouncing back to dynamic stability after a disturbance), or even antifragile (being able to "learn" so as to improve disaster resilience).
Resilience 2.0 identifies a new paradigm: modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are employed as a basis for enabling and improving resilience of a system. ICT provide the basis for sufficient preparation before an assault, for quick recognition of, and for effective, efficient reactions to disasters. Only the coordinated intra- and interphase deployment of ICT promises sufficient success and can bring resilience to currently as yet fragile systems. We discuss stressors (time and performance pressure, physical and psychological stress on personnel) and problems due to damaged ICT-platforms and communication infrastructure. The basic message is that computer-aided Disaster Management is able to offers a new level of reactivity: Resilience 2.0.
KeywordsDisaster vulnerability resilience human reaction hazard threat systemic reaction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The foundations of this work was funded by projects supported by security program "Sicherheitsforschungs - Förderprogramm KIRAS" of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT).
The authors also want to thank the reviewers for their help and support in improving the quality of the paper.
- Aumayr, G. (2015). Health data processing-system theory based meaning and potential for future health. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G., and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society-Interaction and Interdependence, pages 423–430. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
- Aumayr, G., Chroust, G., Haider, G., Randus, R. & Thür, A. (2015). Disaster-management: challenges for computer-supported process and project management. In Ison, R. (ed), Governing the Anthropocene: The greatest challenge for systems thinking in practice?-Program and Abstracts, pp. 107–109. ISSS, International Society for Systems Sciences, 2015.Google Scholar
- Azuma, R. (2004). Overview of augmented reality. In SIGGRAPH’ 04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Course Notes, pp.26, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Brose, D. (2015). Developing a framework for measuring community resilience: summary of a workshop. The National Academies Press 2015. Available via http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=20672.Google Scholar
- Bundesamt f. Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (2011). Psychosoziales Krisenmanagement in CBRN-Lagen / Psychosocial Crisis Management in CBRN Incidents. Bundesamt f. Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe, Germany 2011.Google Scholar
- Chroust, G. & Aumayr, G. (2015). Resilience 2.0: ICT for Resilience of Systems. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society-Interaction and Interdependence, pp. 13–22. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
- Chroust, G., Ossimitz, G., Roth, M., Sturm, N. & Ziehesberger, P. (2015). First responders in regional disasters: a social responsibility. In Mulej, M. and Dyck, R. (eds), Social Responsibility-Range of Perspectives per topic and Countries, pp.23. Bentham Science Publishing Ltd., 2015.Google Scholar
- Chroust, G., Schönhacker, S., Rainer, K., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2009a). Dependable systems, emergency interventions, and organizational processes. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G., and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2009–System and Humans-A Complex Relationship, pp.279–287. Trauner Verlag Linz, 2009.Google Scholar
- Chroust, G., Schö nhacker, S., Rainer, K., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2009b). Training and supporting first responders by mixed reality environments. In 53rd Annual Conference-The International Society for the Systems Sciences " Making Livable, Sustainable Systems Unremarkable", pp.18. The International Society for the Systems Sciences 2009 (CDROM), July 2009, paper no. 2009-1248-Chroust.Google Scholar
- Chroust, G., Sturm, N., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2011). Regional disasters and systemic reactions. In Wilby, J. (ed), ISSS 2011 and ISKSS 2011: All Together Now: Working across Disciplines, pp.15 (paper no. 1631). (CDROM) Int. Systems Science Society, UK, 2011.Google Scholar
- Cruz, A. M. (2005). Natech disasters: a review of practices, lessons learned and future research needs. Technical report, available via ipcc-wg2.gov/njlite_download.php?id=6152 [Dec.2014].Google Scholar
- Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse-How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Penguin Books London, 2005.Google Scholar
- Dörner, D. (1996). Die Logik des Misslingens-Strategisches Denken in komplexen Situationen. sachbuch-9314, rororo Verlag, Hamburg.Google Scholar
- Filippoupolitis, A., Hey, L., Loukas, G., Gelenbe, E. & Timotheou, S. (2008). Emergency response simulation using wireless sensor networks. In Ambi-Sys’ 08: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Ambient Media and Systems, pp.1-7, ICST, Brussels, Belgium. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grifantini, K. (2009). Can you trust crowd wisdom? Technology review (MIT), Sept. 16, 2009.Google Scholar
- Haddow, K. & Haddow, G. (2008). Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World. Butterworth-Heinemann Homeland Security, kindle-book, 2009.Google Scholar
- Holling, C. (1986). The resilience and stability of ecosystems. In Clark, W. and Munn, R. (eds), Sustainable Development of the Biosphere. Cambridge Univ. Press 1986.Google Scholar
- IFRC (ed.) (2007a). Contingency Planning Guide. Technical report, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2007.Google Scholar
- IFRC (ed.) (2007b). Disaster Response and Contingency Planning Guide. Technical report, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2007.Google Scholar
- INSARAG (ed.) (2012). INSARAG Guidelines and Methodology Technical Report. Technical report, International Search and Rescue Advisory Group, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affaires, 2012.Google Scholar
- ISO (2011). ISO 22320:2011, Societal security–emergency management–requirements for incident response. Technical report, International Organization for Standardization, 2011.Google Scholar
- Kelton, D., Sadowski, R. P. & Sturrock, D. (2007). Simulation with ARENA. McGrawHill, Boston 2007.Google Scholar
- Khan, H., Vasilescu, L. & Khan, A. (2008). Disaster management cycle-a theoretical approach. Management and Marketing Journal, 6(1): 43–50.Google Scholar
- Kreps, G. et al. (1989). Social Structure and Disaster. University of Delaware Press, Newark, 1989.Google Scholar
- Lazarte, M. (2013). New ISO standard for emergency management. Available via http://www.iso.org/iso/home/news_index/ news_archive/news.htm?refid=Ref1496, [Feb. 2014].Google Scholar
- Manahl, C. & Drechsler, F. (2015). Engaging end-users in the development of smartphone applications for emergency services. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society -Interaction and Interdependence, pp.39–44. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
- McEntire, D. (2007). Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience. Wiley, USA 2007.Google Scholar
- Mrotzek, M. (2009). Catastrophe dynamics-a systemistic exploration of catastrophes towards a set of catastrophe archetypes using the system dynamics simulation method. PhD thesis, Faculty for Technical Sciences, Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt, Feb. 2009.Google Scholar
- Mrotzek, M. & Ossimitz, G. (2008a). Catastrophe archetypes-using system dynamics to build an integrated systemic theory of catastrophes. In Chroust, G., Doucek, P. & Klas, J. (eds), IDIMT-2008-Managing the Unmanageable, 16th Interdisciplinary Information Management Talks, pp. 371–384. Verlag Trauner Linz, 2008.Google Scholar
- Mrotzek, M. & Ossimitz, G. (2008b). An integrative systemic theory of catastrophes-Studie für KIRAS nr. 813798 proj. SimRad.NBC. Technical report, Inst. f. Mathematik, Univ. Klagenfurt.Google Scholar
- Ossimitz, G. & Lapp, C. (2006). Katastrophen-systemisch betrachtet. Wissenschaft & Umwelt 2006–INTERDISZIPLINÄR, 10: 51–62.Google Scholar
- Pfahl, D. (2005). System dynamics simulation-a tool in support of software risk assessment and decision support. Tutorial at IASTED SE2005, Innsbruck, Austria, February 17, 2005, Handout.Google Scholar
- PublicSafety.NET (2015). For further development of broadband services in disaster relief-whitepaper. Available via http://www.johanniter.at/forschung/D81whitepaper.pdf [January 2016].Google Scholar
- Quarantelli, E. (1985). The need for clarification in definition and conceptualization in research. In Sowder, B. (ed), Disasters and Mental Health-Selected Contemporary Perspectives, pp. 41–73.Google Scholar
- Roth, M. et al. (2012). SIMRAD.COMP: Simulations-und Informationssystem zum Administrieren von Hilfseinheiten bei Katastrophen-Erforschung von Systemkomponenten zur Überprüfung der Einsatztauglichkeit der SIMRAD Technologie, Endbericht Projekt KIRAS 818784. Technical report, Österr. Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft mbH (FFG) 2012.Google Scholar
- SimRad.NBC (2009). The SimRad.NBC-simulation-and information system to manage rescue units at disasters–with focus on NBC threats. Available via http://www.simrad.at [May 2009].Google Scholar
- Skrbek, J. & Kviz, J. (2010). Critical areas of early warning system. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2010 Information Technology-Human Values, Innovation and Economy, Sept 2010, pp. 193–200. Trauner Verlag Linz, 2010.Google Scholar
- Svata, V. (2012). ICT Methodogical support of disaster management. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2012-ICT Support for Complex Systems, Sept 2012. Trauner Verlag Linz.Google Scholar
- Taleb, N. (2012). Antifragile: How to Live in a World We Don’t Understand. Penguin UK2012.Google Scholar
- Tierney, K., Lindell, M. & Perry, R. (2001). Facing the Unexpected-Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Josef Henry Press, Washington DC, SA 2001.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia-english (2013). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.Google Scholar