Resilience 2.0: Computer-aided Disaster Management

  • Gerhard Chroust
  • Georg Aumayr


Many factors (larger population, more dependency on technology, more human-caused interference in the natural systems and equilibria, climate changes,⋯) contribute to the seemingly growing number and severity of disasters. Additional exaggeration is generated by public media. As a consequence Disaster Prevention and Disaster Management must be given increased attention. The ultimate goal of Disaster Management is resilience of the affected system and thus the adequate and acceptable survival of the affected population.

We discuss system behavior in the case of an assault or disturbance: from being fragile (loss of their functionality due to the assault) to being resilient (having the capacity... of bouncing back to dynamic stability after a disturbance), or even antifragile (being able to "learn" so as to improve disaster resilience).

Resilience 2.0 identifies a new paradigm: modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are employed as a basis for enabling and improving resilience of a system. ICT provide the basis for sufficient preparation before an assault, for quick recognition of, and for effective, efficient reactions to disasters. Only the coordinated intra- and interphase deployment of ICT promises sufficient success and can bring resilience to currently as yet fragile systems. We discuss stressors (time and performance pressure, physical and psychological stress on personnel) and problems due to damaged ICT-platforms and communication infrastructure. The basic message is that computer-aided Disaster Management is able to offers a new level of reactivity: Resilience 2.0.


Disaster vulnerability resilience human reaction hazard threat systemic reaction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The foundations of this work was funded by projects supported by security program "Sicherheitsforschungs - Förderprogramm KIRAS" of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT).

The authors also want to thank the reviewers for their help and support in improving the quality of the paper.


  1. [1]
    Asimakopoulou, E. & Bessis, N. (2010). Advanced ICTs for disaster management and threat detection: collaborative and distributed frameworks. Information Sciences References, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Aumayr, G. (2015). Health data processing-system theory based meaning and potential for future health. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G., and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society-Interaction and Interdependence, pages 423–430. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Aumayr, G., Chroust, G., Haider, G., Randus, R. & Thür, A. (2015). Disaster-management: challenges for computer-supported process and project management. In Ison, R. (ed), Governing the Anthropocene: The greatest challenge for systems thinking in practice?-Program and Abstracts, pp. 107–109. ISSS, International Society for Systems Sciences, 2015.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Azuma, R. (2004). Overview of augmented reality. In SIGGRAPH’ 04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Course Notes, pp.26, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Backfried, G., Göllner, J., Quirchmayr, G. et al. (2013). Integration of media sources for situation analysis in the different phases of disaster management. In EISIC 2013, IEEE, University of Upsalla, SWE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Bolin, R. & Standford, L. (1998). The Northridge Earthquake: Vulnerability and Disaster. Routledge, London 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Brose, D. (2015). Developing a framework for measuring community resilience: summary of a workshop. The National Academies Press 2015. Available via Scholar
  8. [8]
    Bundesamt f. Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (2011). Psychosoziales Krisenmanagement in CBRN-Lagen / Psychosocial Crisis Management in CBRN Incidents. Bundesamt f. Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe, Germany 2011.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Chroust, G. & Aumayr, G. (2015). Resilience 2.0: ICT for Resilience of Systems. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society-Interaction and Interdependence, pp. 13–22. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Chroust, G., Ossimitz, G., Roth, M., Sturm, N. & Ziehesberger, P. (2015). First responders in regional disasters: a social responsibility. In Mulej, M. and Dyck, R. (eds), Social Responsibility-Range of Perspectives per topic and Countries, pp.23. Bentham Science Publishing Ltd., 2015.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Chroust, G., Schönhacker, S., Rainer, K., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2009a). Dependable systems, emergency interventions, and organizational processes. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G., and Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2009–System and Humans-A Complex Relationship, pp.279–287. Trauner Verlag Linz, 2009.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Chroust, G., Schö nhacker, S., Rainer, K., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2009b). Training and supporting first responders by mixed reality environments. In 53rd Annual Conference-The International Society for the Systems Sciences " Making Livable, Sustainable Systems Unremarkable", pp.18. The International Society for the Systems Sciences 2009 (CDROM), July 2009, paper no. 2009-1248-Chroust.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Chroust, G., Sturm, N., Roth, M. & Ziehesberger, P. (2011). Regional disasters and systemic reactions. In Wilby, J. (ed), ISSS 2011 and ISKSS 2011: All Together Now: Working across Disciplines, pp.15 (paper no. 1631). (CDROM) Int. Systems Science Society, UK, 2011.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Cruz, A. M. (2005). Natech disasters: a review of practices, lessons learned and future research needs. Technical report, available via [Dec.2014].Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse-How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Penguin Books London, 2005.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Dörner, D. (1996). Die Logik des Misslingens-Strategisches Denken in komplexen Situationen. sachbuch-9314, rororo Verlag, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Filippoupolitis, A., Hey, L., Loukas, G., Gelenbe, E. & Timotheou, S. (2008). Emergency response simulation using wireless sensor networks. In Ambi-Sys’ 08: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Ambient Media and Systems, pp.1-7, ICST, Brussels, Belgium. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Francois, C. (2004). International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics. 2nd edition, 2 volumes, K. G. Saur, München 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Greengard, S. (2014). Weathering a new era of Big Data. Comm. ACM, 57 (9): 12–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Grifantini, K. (2009). Can you trust crowd wisdom? Technology review (MIT), Sept. 16, 2009.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Haddow, K. & Haddow, G. (2008). Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World. Butterworth-Heinemann Homeland Security, kindle-book, 2009.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Holling, C. (1986). The resilience and stability of ecosystems. In Clark, W. and Munn, R. (eds), Sustainable Development of the Biosphere. Cambridge Univ. Press 1986.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    IFRC (ed.) (2007a). Contingency Planning Guide. Technical report, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2007.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    IFRC (ed.) (2007b). Disaster Response and Contingency Planning Guide. Technical report, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2007.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    INSARAG (ed.) (2012). INSARAG Guidelines and Methodology Technical Report. Technical report, International Search and Rescue Advisory Group, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affaires, 2012.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    ISO (2011). ISO 22320:2011, Societal security–emergency management–requirements for incident response. Technical report, International Organization for Standardization, 2011.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Kelton, D., Sadowski, R. P. & Sturrock, D. (2007). Simulation with ARENA. McGrawHill, Boston 2007.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Khan, H., Vasilescu, L. & Khan, A. (2008). Disaster management cycle-a theoretical approach. Management and Marketing Journal, 6(1): 43–50.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Kreps, G. et al. (1989). Social Structure and Disaster. University of Delaware Press, Newark, 1989.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Lazarte, M. (2013). New ISO standard for emergency management. Available via news_archive/news.htm?refid=Ref1496, [Feb. 2014].Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Manahl, C. & Drechsler, F. (2015). Engaging end-users in the development of smartphone applications for emergency services. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT-2015, Information Technology and Society -Interaction and Interdependence, pp.39–44. Trauner Verlag Linz, Sept. 2015.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    McEntire, D. (2007). Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience. Wiley, USA 2007.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Mrotzek, M. (2009). Catastrophe dynamics-a systemistic exploration of catastrophes towards a set of catastrophe archetypes using the system dynamics simulation method. PhD thesis, Faculty for Technical Sciences, Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt, Feb. 2009.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Mrotzek, M. & Ossimitz, G. (2008a). Catastrophe archetypes-using system dynamics to build an integrated systemic theory of catastrophes. In Chroust, G., Doucek, P. & Klas, J. (eds), IDIMT-2008-Managing the Unmanageable, 16th Interdisciplinary Information Management Talks, pp. 371–384. Verlag Trauner Linz, 2008.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Mrotzek, M. & Ossimitz, G. (2008b). An integrative systemic theory of catastrophes-Studie für KIRAS nr. 813798 proj. SimRad.NBC. Technical report, Inst. f. Mathematik, Univ. Klagenfurt.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Norris, F., Friedman, M. & Watson, P. (2002). 60.000 disaster victims speak: Part ii.: summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 65: 240–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ossimitz, G. & Lapp, C. (2006). Katastrophen-systemisch betrachtet. Wissenschaft & Umwelt 2006–INTERDISZIPLINÄR, 10: 51–62.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Pfahl, D. (2005). System dynamics simulation-a tool in support of software risk assessment and decision support. Tutorial at IASTED SE2005, Innsbruck, Austria, February 17, 2005, Handout.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    PublicSafety.NET (2015). For further development of broadband services in disaster relief-whitepaper. Available via [January 2016].Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Quarantelli, E. (1985). The need for clarification in definition and conceptualization in research. In Sowder, B. (ed), Disasters and Mental Health-Selected Contemporary Perspectives, pp. 41–73.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Roth, M. et al. (2012). SIMRAD.COMP: Simulations-und Informationssystem zum Administrieren von Hilfseinheiten bei Katastrophen-Erforschung von Systemkomponenten zur Überprüfung der Einsatztauglichkeit der SIMRAD Technologie, Endbericht Projekt KIRAS 818784. Technical report, Österr. Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft mbH (FFG) 2012.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    SimRad.NBC (2009). The SimRad.NBC-simulation-and information system to manage rescue units at disasters–with focus on NBC threats. Available via [May 2009].Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Skrbek, J. & Kviz, J. (2010). Critical areas of early warning system. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2010 Information Technology-Human Values, Innovation and Economy, Sept 2010, pp. 193–200. Trauner Verlag Linz, 2010.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Svata, V. (2012). ICT Methodogical support of disaster management. In Doucek, P., Chroust, G. & Oskrdal, V. (eds), IDIMT 2012-ICT Support for Complex Systems, Sept 2012. Trauner Verlag Linz.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Taleb, N. (2012). Antifragile: How to Live in a World We Don’t Understand. Penguin UK2012.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Tierney, K., Lindell, M. & Perry, R. (2001). Facing the Unexpected-Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Josef Henry Press, Washington DC, SA 2001.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Wikipedia-english (2013). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available via Scholar

Copyright information

© Systems Engineering Society of China and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for TelecooperationJohannes Kepler University LinzViennaAustria
  2. 2.Johanniter Österreich Ausbildung und ForschungViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations