Advertisement

Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 56, Issue 10, pp 1899–1910 | Cite as

Flow and air conditioning simulations of computer turbinectomized nose models

  • J. Pérez-Mota
  • F. Solorio-Ordaz
  • J. Cervantes-de Gortari
Original article
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

Air conditioning for the human respiratory system is the most important function of the nose. When obstruction occurs in the nasal airway, turbinectomy is used to correct such pathology. However, mucosal atrophy may occur sometime after this surgery when it is overdone. There is not enough information about long-term recovery of nasal air conditioning performance after partial or total surgery. The purpose of this research was to assess if, based on the flow and temperature/humidity characteristics of the air intake to the choana, partial resection of turbinates is better than total resection. A normal nasal cavity geometry was digitized from tomographic scans and a model was printed in 3D. Dynamic (sinusoidal) laboratory tests and computer simulations of airflow were conducted with full agreement between numerical and experimental results. Computational adaptations were subsequently performed to represent six turbinectomy variations and a swollen nasal cavity case. Streamlines along the nasal cavity and temperature and humidity distributions at the choana indicated that the middle turbinate partial resection is the best alternative. These findings may facilitate the diagnosis of nasal obstruction and can be useful both to plan a turbinectomy and to reduce postoperative discomfort.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Unsteady nasal airflow Computer partial turbinectomy Nasal surgery simulation 

Notes

Glossary

Δp

Pressure difference between nostril and choana (Pa)

Δppipe

Pressure drop for Poiseuille flow (Pa)

Δz

Distance between pressure ports for Poiseuille flow (m)

ϕ

Relative humidity

μ

Air dynamic viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

ρ

Air density (kg/m3)

ωr

Respiratory frequency (rad/s)

\( \dot{m} \)

Boundary condition mass flow rate (kg/s)

\( {\dot{m}}_e \)

Experimental mass flow rate (kg/s)

a, b

Empirical constants

\( {c}_{H_2O} \)

Water vapor concentration in air \( \left({\mathrm{kg}}_{{\mathrm{H}}_2\mathrm{O}}/{\mathrm{kg}}_{\mathrm{humid}\kern0.24em \mathrm{air}}\right) \)

cp

Air specific heat at constant pressure (J kg−1K−1)

Apipe

Cross-sectional area for Poiseuille flow (m2)

D

Diffusivity of water vapor in air (m2/s)

DP

Piston diameter (m)

k

Air thermal conductivity (W m−1K−1)

L

Piston travel length (m)

MFvapour

Water vapor mass fraction \( \left({\mathrm{kg}}_{{\mathrm{H}}_2\mathrm{O}}/{\mathrm{kg}}_{\mathrm{humid}\kern0.24em \mathrm{air}}\right) \)

p

Pressure (Pa)

psat

Saturation pressure (Pa)

Q

Volume flow (m3/s)

T

Temperature (K)

t

Time (s)

U

Velocity vector (m/s)

v

Air kinematic viscosity m2/s

References

  1. 1.
    Doorly DJ, Taylor DJ, Schroter RC (2008) Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways. Res Phys Neurobiol 163:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mygind N, Dahl R (1998) Anatomy, physiology and function of the nasal cavities in health and disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 29(1/2):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kelly JT, Prasad AK, Wexler AS (2000) Detailed flow patterns in the nasal cavity. J Appl Physiol 89:323–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Naftali S, Rosenfeld M, Wolf M, Elad D (2005) The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose. Ann Biomed Eng 33:545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim JK, Yoon JH, Kim CH, Nam TW, Shim DB, Shin HA (2006) Particle image velocimetry measurements for the study of nasal airflow. Acta Otolaryngol 126:282–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taylor DJ, Doorly DJ, Schroter RC (2010) Inflow boundary profile prescription for numerical simulation of nasal airflow. J R Soc Interface 7:515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gambaruto AM, Taylor DJ, Doorly DJ (2012) Decomposition and description of the nasal cavity form. Ann Biomed Eng 40:1142–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rice DH, Kern EB, Marple BF, Mabry RL, Friedman WH (2003) The turbinates in nasal and sinus surgery: a consensus statement. Ear Nose Throat J 82:82–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Houser SM (2007) Surgical treatment for empty nose syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:858–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hahn I, Scherer PW, Maxwell M (1993) Mozell velocity profiles measured for airflow through a large-scale model of the human nasal cavity. Appl Phys 75:2273–2287Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim SK, Son YR (2004) Investigation on airflows in abnormal nasal cavity with adenoid vegetation by particle image velocimetry. KSME Int J 18:1799–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hörschler I, Brücker C, Schröder W, Meinke M (2006) Investigation of the impact of the geometry on the nose flow. Eur J Mech B Fluids 25:471–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim SK, Chung SK (2004) An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV. Meas Sci Technol 15:1090–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garcia GJM, Bailie N, Martins DA, Kimbell JS (2007) Atrophic rhinitis: a CFD study of air conditioning in the nasal cavity. J Appl Physiol 103:1082–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leong SC, Chen XB, Lee HP, Wang DY (2010) A review of the implications of computational fluid dynamic studies on nasal airflow and physiology. Rhinology 48:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zubair M, Abdullah MZ, Ismail R, Shuaib IL, Hamid SA, Ahmad KA (2012) Review: a critical overview of limitations of CFD modeling in nasal airflow. J Med Biol Eng 32:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim SK, Na Y, Kim JI, Chung SK (2013) Patient specific CFD models of nasal airflow: overview of methods and challenges. J Biomech 46:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Rettinger G, Keck T (2002) Nasal mucosal temperature during respiration. Clin Otolaryngol 27:135–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lindemann J, Kühnemann S, Stehmer V, Leiacker R, Rettinger G, Keck T (2001) Temperature and humidity profile of the anterior nasal airways of patients with nasal septal perforation. Rhinology 39:202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Na Y, Chung KS, Chung SK, Kim SK (2012) Effects of single-sided inferior turbinectomy on nasal function and airflow characteristics. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 180:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    White FM (2009) Fluid mechanics, 7th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide, September 2006, Lebanon, NH 03766, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Folke M, Cernerud L, Ekström M, Hök B (2003) Critical Review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care. Med Biol Eng Comput 41:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chung SK, Kim SK (2008) Digital particle image velocimetry studies of nasal airflow. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 163:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee JH, Na Y, Kim SK, Chung SK (2010) Unsteady flow characteristics through a human nasal airway. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 172:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Pérez-Mota
    • 1
  • F. Solorio-Ordaz
    • 1
  • J. Cervantes-de Gortari
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Termofluidos, DIMEI, Facultad de IngenieríaUNAM Ciudad UniversitariaMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations