Invulnerability of bromelain against oxidative degeneration and cholinergic deficits imposed by dichlorvos in mice brains
The present study elucidates the protective potential of bromelain against dichlorvos intoxication in mice brains. Dichlorvos induces the oxidative stress by disproportionating the balance between free radicals generation and their scavenging in neurons which leads to neuronal degeneration.
In this study, mice were divided into four groups-group I (control), group II (dichlorvos treated), group III (bromelain treated) and group IV (exposed to both bromelain and dichlorvos both).
Dichlorvos treatment increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) which indicate the increased oxidative stress. Meanwhile, brain endogenous antioxidants and cholinesterases level was decreased after dichlorvos exposure. Levels of TBARS and PCC decreased whereas cholinesterases level was recorded to be elevated after bromelain exposure.
Bromelain offered neuroprotection by decreasing oxidative stress and augmenting cholinesterases in mice brains. This study highlights the invulnerability of bromelain against oxidative and cholinergic deficits in mice brains.
Keywordsoxidative stress dichlorvos bromelain neuroprotection neurotransmitter
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank Banasthali University and Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for providing the facilities for present investigation.
- Abdelsalam E B (1999). Neurotoxic potential of six organophosphorus compounds in adult hens. Vet Hum Toxicol. 141(5): 290–292Google Scholar
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Richte P, Corcoran J (1997). Toxicological Profile for Dichlorvos. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, USAGoogle Scholar
- Bhattacharyya B K (2008). Bromelain: an overview. Nat Prod Rad, 7(4): 359–363Google Scholar
- Chaudhary B, Agrawal S, Bist R (2014). Obliteration in Oxidative Stress and Ca ++ Uptake in Brain Mitochondria Leads to Impairment of Cholinergic System: A Possible Mechanism Underlying Neurotoxicity Induced by Dichlorvos. BBB, 2: 550–564Google Scholar
- Claiborne A (1985). Catalase Activity: In Greenwald RA (Ed.) CRC Handbook of Methods in Oxygen Radical Research. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 283–284Google Scholar
- Gallo M A, Lawryk N J (1991). Organic phosphorus pesticides. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Hayes W J Jr, and Laws E R Jr., Eds. New York: Acad Press, 5: 917–1123Google Scholar
- HabigW H, Pabst M J, Jakoby W B (1974). Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem, 249(22): 7130–7139Google Scholar
- Habashi S A, Moghimi A, Sabouni F, Majd S A (2012). Inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated primary rat microglial cells by Bromelain. J of Cell and Mol Res, 3(2): 57–65Google Scholar
- Kangralkar V A, Shivraj D, Patil, Bandivadekar R M (2010). Oxidative stress and diabetes: A review. International J of Pharmaceut App, 1 (1): 38–45Google Scholar
- Savolainen K (2001). Understanding the toxic action of organophosphates. In: Krieger R I, editor. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 2:1013–1043Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006). Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Dichlorvos (DDVP). Vet Hum Toxicol, 41 (5): 290–292Google Scholar
- Yoshikawa T, Naito Y (2002). What Is Oxidative Stress? J of the Japan Med Association, 45(7): 271–276Google Scholar