Cannabis and the Lung
While most cannabis use involves inhalation of the fumes from combustion, other routes of administration are also common but the consequences of these routes of exposure are less well known than from that of smoking. It is clear that prolonged use of cannabis causes chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction in heavy users. However, there is a need to further understand the lung biology influenced by cannabis use, the potential for lung carcinogenesis, the effects of high THC products, and the health effects of different routes of administration. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge with regard to irritation and long-term effects on the lung and bronchial tissues.
KeywordsCannabis Lungs Pulmonary Health implications Smoking
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The author declares the article is in compliance with the protection of all human and animal rights.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
- Aldington, S., Harwood, M., Cox, B. et al (2008) Cannabis and Respiratory Disease Research Group. Cannabis use and risk of lung cancer: a case-conrol study. European Respiratory Journal, 31, 280–286.Google Scholar
- Callaghan, R. C., Allebeck, P., Sidorchuk, A. (2013) Marijuana use and risk of lung cancer: a 40-year cohort study. Cancer Causes Control, 24, 1811–1820.Google Scholar
- Han, B., Gfreoerer J. C., Colliver, J. D. (2010) Associations between duration of illicit drug use and health conditions: results from the 2005-2007 national surveys on drug use and health. Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 289–297.Google Scholar
- Hancox, RJ., Poulton, R., Ely, M. et al. Effects of cannabis on lung function: a population-based cohort sutdy. European Respiratory Journal, 35, 42–47.Google Scholar
- Zhang, L. R., Morgenstern, H., Greenland, S. et al (2015) Cannabis and Respiratory Disease Research Group of New Zealand. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: pooled analysis in the iInternational Lung Cancer Consortium. International Journal of Cancer, 136, 894–903.Google Scholar
- Kempker, J. A., Honig, E. G., Martin G. S. (2015) The effects of marijuana exposure on expiratory airflow. A study of adults who participated in the the US National Heallth and Nutrition Examinaton Study. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 12, 135-141.Google Scholar
- Pletcher, M. J., Vittinghoff, E., Kalhan, R., Richman, J., Safford, M., Sidney, S., Lin, F., & Kertesz, S. (2013). Association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over 20 years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(2), 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.1961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar