Exercise Addiction and Psychophysiological Health in Korean Collegiate Students
This study was carried out with collegiate students who took part in an exercise program for 1 year. An exercise addiction (EA) questionnaire was used to classify EA and non-EA (NEA) groups. Exercise dependence (ED), compulsive exercise (CE), and obligatory exercise (OE) questionnaires were used to validate the EA results. A total of 38 male and 37 female college students were selected as the subjects for this study to investigate the effects of EA on psychophysiological health. The psychophysiological health variables were composed of depression, stress, body composition, and muscular joint health. This study showed that EA was significantly associated with ED (r = 0.746; P = 0.001), CE (r = 0.644; P = 0.001), and OE (r = 0.731; P = 0.001), respectively. Although there were no significant differences between EA groups and NEA groups for both males and females on depression (Z = − 0.813; P = 0.416 and Z = − 0.148; P = 0.882, respectively), physical stress (Z = − 0.777; P = 0.437 and Z = −0.074; P = 0.941, respectively), and emotional stress (Z = − 1.035; P = 0.300 and Z = − 0.573; P = 0.567, respectively), the elbow and knee joint functions of EA males were significantly higher compared with those of NEA males. However, the variables of body composition in EA females were not significantly different from those of NEA females. Being addicted to exercise for 1 year resulted in negative effects on the psychological health in both genders, while it had a negative effect on physical health for women only.
KeywordsExercise addiction Stress Depression Muscular joint function
This research was supported by the 2016 Hanseo University Research Grant.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study. This study was approved by the Sahmyook University of Research Ethics Committee for Human Use (SYUIRB2015-010).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bullinger, M., Alonso, J., Apolone, G., Leplege, A., Sulliva, M., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Gandek, B., Wagner, A., Aaronson, N., Bech, P., Fukuhara, S., Kaasa, S., & Ware Jr., J. E. (1998). Translating health status questionnaires and evaluating their quality: the IQOLA project approach. International quality of life assessment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 913–923.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carron, A. V., Hausenblas, H. A., & Estabrooks, P. A. (2003). The psychology of physical activity. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Cha, J. Y., Kim, J. H., Hong, J., Choi, Y. T., Kim, M. H., Cho, J. H., Ko, I. G., & Jee, Y. S. (2014). A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10, 35–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cull, A., Sprangers, M., Bjordal, K., Aaronson, N., West, K., & Bottomley, A. (2002). EORTC quality of life group translation procedure (2nd ed.). Brussels: EORTC.Google Scholar
- Kılınç, B. E., Kara, A., Camur, S., Oc, Y., & Celik, H. (2015). Isokinetic dynamometer evaluation of the effects of early thigh diameter difference on thigh muscle strength in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 11, 95–100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Morgan, W. P. (1979). Negative addiction in runners. Physician and Sports Medicine, 7, 57–70.Google Scholar
- Pil-Byung, C., Shin-Hwan, Y., Il-Gyu, K., Gwang-Suk, H., Jae-Hyun, Y., Han-Joon, L., Sung-Eun, K., & Yong-Seok, J. (2011). Effects of exercise program on appetite-regulating hormones, inflammatory mediators, lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy men. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 654–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sachs, M. L. (1981). Running addiction. In M. H. Sacks & M. L. Sachs (Eds.), Psychology of running (pp. 116–127). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
- Song, J. Y., Park, J. W., Lee, C. B., Eun, D., Jang, J. H., Lee, H. J., Hyun, G. S., Park, J. M., Cha, J. Y., Cho, N. H., Ko, I. G., Jin, J. J., Ham, D. W., & Jee, Y. S. (2016). Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12, 99–108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- The Counseling Team International (n.d.). Am I depressed? Retrieved from http://thecounselingteam.com/wordpress3/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Am-I-Depressed.pdf.
- Van Widenfelt, B. M., Treffers, P. D., de Beurs, E., Siebelink, B. M., & Koudijs, E. (2005). Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of assessment instruments used in psychological research with children and families. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 135–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar