Relapse Risk Factors in Heroin Addicts Treated with Naltrexone and Naltrexone-Behavioural Psychotherapy
To construct a successful treatment model for heroin addiction, it is important to define factors that contribute to relapse. In this translational ambidirectional cohort study, we evaluated 2 groups of heroin addicts that underwent the same therapeutic procedures with different outcomes (133 abstainers and 56 relapsers). The study found a new variable, “relapse marker”, defined by the synergy of the following factors: (a) non-use of tramadol before treatment (p < 0.0005), (b) absence of sense of loss of control over behaviour as a motive for treatment initiation (p = 0.048), (c) use of benzodiazepines in recovery (p < 0.0005), (d) substituting heroin addiction with gambling (p < 0.009), e) younger age (p = 0.012), and (f) explicit parental demand as a treatment motive (p = 0.040). This study reports a mathematical model that predicts relapse and inability to sustain stable abstinence as an outcome of heroin addiction treatment.
KeywordsHeroin addiction Treatment outcome Relapse Addiction syndrome Treatment motivation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All authors were involved in the study design, had full access to the survey data and analyses, and interpreted the data, critically reviewed the manuscript and had full control, including final responsibility for the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Informed Consent and Ethics
Authors confirm that the submitted study was conducted according to the WMA Declaration of Helsinki - Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. This study has ethics committee approval. All patients gave their informed consent to the anonymous use of their clinical data for this independent study.
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