Patterns and Motives for Electronic Cigarette Use in a Sample of Community-Recruited Gamblers

  • Daniel S. McGrath
  • Hyoun S. Kim
  • Celina A. Boothby
  • Nicole K. Romanow
  • David C. Hodgins
Brief Report


Many smokers are replacing tobacco with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or are engaging in dual-use. Evidence indicates that smoking rates are higher amongst gamblers; however, the extent to which gamblers use e-cigarettes is unknown. The current study examined rates of e-cigarette use in gamblers, identified associations between e-cigarette use and gambling, and assessed motives for e-cigarette use during gambling. A community-recruited sample of gamblers (N = 564) completed questionnaires on e-cigarettes, smoking, and gambling. ‘Ever use’ of e-cigarettes was 38.7% with 17.6% reporting ‘past 30-day use’. Furthermore, 11.9% used e-cigarettes while gambling in the past 12 months. Regression analyses for ‘past 30-day use’ revealed that occasional smoking, gambling severity, and number of gambling activities were associated with the highest odds of use. Reasons for use while gambling included: relaxation/stress, nicotine dependence and legal in casinos. These findings suggest e-cigarette use is common in gamblers and may be used to circumvent casino smoking bans.


Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) Gambling Smoking Co-morbidity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel S. McGrath
    • 1
  • Hyoun S. Kim
    • 1
  • Celina A. Boothby
    • 2
  • Nicole K. Romanow
    • 1
  • David C. Hodgins
    • 1
  1. 1.Administration Building 216, Department of PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Community Health SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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