In this manuscript, a plasmonic refractive index sensor with two sequential ring resonators is presented. Due to the dual-band unidirectional reflectionless light propagation phenomena, both the sensitivity and figure of merit are improved. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to simulate the structure numerically. Moreover, the device is investigated analytically, using the coupled-mode theory (CMT). A good agreement between the analytical and numerical results is observed. The proposed device indicates a high sensitivity of ∼1000 nm/RIU, a significant figure of merit of 133 RIU−1, and a large quality factor of 132.8 for sensing different materials with the refractive indices of n = 1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6. Also, the presented structure is investigated as a temperature sensor in which the sensitivity to the temperature changes is obtained as 0.41 nm/°C.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Chen X, Liu Y, Huang J et al (2017) Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine Label-free techniques for laboratory medicine applications. Front Lab Med 1:4–7
Amoosoltani N, Zarifkar A, Farmani A (2019) Particle swarm optimization and finite-difference time-domain (PSO/FDTD) algorithms for a surface plasmon resonance-based gas sensor. J Comput Electron 18:1354–1364
Verma R, Gupta BD, Jha R (2011) Sensors and Actuators B : chemical sensitivity enhancement of a surface plasmon resonance based biomolecules sensor using graphene and silicon layers. Sensors Actuators B Chem 160:623–631
Xie Y, Huang Y, Xu W et al (2016) A plasmonic temperature-sensing structure based on dual laterally side-coupled hexagonal cavities. Sensors 16:706–717
Tavousi A, Rakhshani MR, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2018) High sensitivity label-free refractometer based biosensor applicable to glycated hemoglobin detection in human blood using all-circular photonic crystal ring resonators. Opt Commun 429:166–174
Syahir A, Usui K, Tomizaki K et al (2015) Label and label-free detection techniques for protein microarrays. Microarrays 4:228–244
Farmani A, Mir A (2019) Graphene sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for optical scanning. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 31:643–646
Biswas S, Kole AK, Sarkar R, Kumbhakar P (2015) Synthesis of anisotropic nanostructures of silver for its possible applications in glucose and temperature sensing. Mater Res Express 1:45043
Pathak AK, Singh VK (2020) SPR based optical fiber refractive index sensor using silver nanowire assisted CSMFC. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 32:465–468
Farmani A (2019) Three-dimensional FDTD analysis of a nanostructured plasmonic sensor in the near-infrared range. J Opt Soc Am B 36:401–407
Sorger VJ, Oulton RF, Ma RM (2012) Toward integrated plasmonic circuits toward integrated plasmonic circuits. MRS Bull 37:728–738
Kinsey N, Ferrera M, Shalaev VM, Boltasseva A (2015) plasmonic interconnects and modulators using traditional and alternative examining nanophotonics for integrated hybrid systems : a review of plasmonic interconnects and modulators using traditional and alternative materials [Invited]. J Opt Soc Am B 32:121–142
Alipour A, Farmani A, Mir A (2018) High sensitivity and tunable nanoscale sensor based on plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic metasurface. IEEE Sens J 18:7047–7054
Khani S, Danaie M, Rezaei P (2019) Size reduction of MIM surface plasmon based optical bandpass filters by the introduction of arrays of silver nano-rods. Phys E Low-Dimensional Syst Nanostructures 113:25–34
Zhu J, Jian L (2018) Ultrasensitive and multifunction plasmonic temperature sensor with ethanol-sealed asymmetric ellipse resonators. Molecules 23:2700–2711
Wu C, Ding H, Huang T et al (2018) Plasmon-induced transparency and refractive index sensing in side-coupled stub-hexagon resonators. Plasmonics 13:251–257
Chen L, Liu Y, Yu Z et al (2016) Numerical analysis of a near-infrared plasmonic refractive index sensor with high figure of merit based on a fillet cavity. Opt Express 24:9975–9983
Biswas S, Chakraborty J, Agarwal A, Kumbhakar P (2019) Gold nanostructures for the sensing of pH using a smartphone. RSC Adv 9:34144–34151
Chen F, Zhang H, Sun L et al (2019) Temperature tunable Fano resonance based on ring resonator side coupled with a MIM waveguide. Opt Laser Technol 116:293–299
Rakhshani MR, Tavousi A, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2018) Design of a plasmonic sensor based on a square array of nanorods and two slot cavities with a high figure of merit for glucose concentration monitoring. Appl Opt 57:7798–7804
Shi X, Ma L, Zhang Z et al (2018) Dual Fano resonance control and refractive index sensors based on a plasmonic waveguide-coupled resonator system. Opt Commun 427:326–330
Chen Y, Chen L, Wen K et al (2019) Double Fano resonances based on different mechanisms in a MIM plasmonic system. Photonics Nanostruct Fundam Appl 36:100714–100720
Rakhshani MR, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2018) A high-sensitivity sensor based on three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal racetrack resonator and application for hemoglobin detection. Photonics Nanostruct Fundam Appl 32:28–34
Rakhshani MR, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2016) High sensitivity plasmonic sensor based on metal – insulator – metal eaveguide and hexagonal-ring cavity. IEEE Sens J 16:3041–3046
Rahman MZU, Krishna KM, Reddy KK et al (2018) Ultra-wide-band band-pass filters using plasmonic MIM waveguide-based ring resonators. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 30:1715–1718
Rahman-zadeh F, Danaie M, Kaatuzian H (2019) Opto-electronics review design of a highly sensitive photonic crystal refractive index sensor incorporating ring-shaped GaAs cavity. Opto-Electronics Rev 27:369–377
Guo Z, Wen K, Hu Q et al (2018) Plasmonic multichannel refractive index sensor based on subwavelength tangent-ring metal–insulator–metal waveguide. Sensors 18:1348–1357
Khani S, Danaie M, Rezaei P (2018) Realization of single-mode plasmonic bandpass filters using improved nanodisk resonators. Opt Commun 420:147–156
Amoosoltani N, Yasrebi N, Farmani A, Zarifkar A (2020) A plasmonic nano-biosensor based on two consecutive disk resonators and unidirectional reflectionless propagation effect. IEEE Sens J 20:9097–9104
Zhang C, Bai R, Jin XR, Lee Y (2017) Dual-band unidirectional reflectionless phenomena in an ultracompact non- Hermitian plasmonic waveguide system based on near-field coupling. Opt Express 25:24281–24289
Zhang C, Bai R, Gu X et al (2017) Unidirectional reflectionless propagation in plasmonic waveguide system based on phase coupling between two stub resonators. IEEE Photonics J 9:1–9
Zhang C, Bai R, Gu X et al (2017) Unidirectional reflectionless phenomenon in ultracompact non-Hermitian plasmonic waveguide system based on phase coupling. J Opt 19:125005–125010
Sadeghi T, Golmohammadi S, Farmani A, Baghban H (2019) Improving the performance of nanostructure multifunctional graphene plasmonic logic gates utilizing coupled-mode theory. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 125:189–201
Fang Y, Wen K, Qin Y et al (2019) Multiple fano resonances in an end-coupled MIM waveguide system. Opt Commun 452:12–17
Fang Y, Wen K, Li Z et al (2019) Multiple Fano resonances based on end-coupled semi-ring rectangular resonator. IEEE Photonics J 11:1–8
Rakhshani MR, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2016) High-sensitivity plasmonic sensor based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide and hexagonal-ring cavity. IEEE Sens J 16:3041–3046
Rakhshani MR, Mansouri-Birjandi MA (2017) High sensitivity plasmonic refractive index sensing and its application for human blood group identification. Sensors Actuators B Chem 249:168–176
Butt MA, Khonina SN, Kazanskiy NL (2019) Metal-insulator-metal nano square ring resonator for gas sensing applications. Waves Random Complex Media 1–11
Danaie M, Shahzadi A (2019) Design of a high-resolution metal–insulator–metal plasmonic refractive index sensor based on a ring-shaped si resonator. Plasmonics 14:1453–1465
Zhao X, Zhang Z, Yan S (2017) Tunable fano resonance in asymmetric MIM waveguide structure. Sensors (Switzerland) 17(7):1494
This is a theoretical study and no ethical approval is required.
Consent to Participate
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Consent for Publication
The participant has consented to the submission of the case report to the journal.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Amoosoltani, N., Mehrabi, K., Zarifkar, A. et al. Double-Ring Resonator Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor Utilizing Dual-Band Unidirectional Reflectionless Propagation Effect. Plasmonics (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11468-021-01395-9
- Refractive index sensor
- Ring resonator
- Coupled mode theory
- Temperature sensor