Advertisement

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 102–112 | Cite as

Smart product design for automotive systems

  • A. Galip Ulsoy
Open Access
Feature Article
  • 324 Downloads

Abstract

Automobiles evolved from primarily mechanical to electro-mechanical, or mechatronic, vehicles. For example, carburetors have been replaced by fuel injection and air-fuel ratio control, leading to order of magnitude improvements in fuel economy and emissions. Mechatronic systems are pervasive in modern automobiles and represent a synergistic integration of mechanics, electronics and computer science. They are smart systems, whose design is more challenging than the separate design of their mechanical, electronic and computer/control components. In this review paper, two recent methods for the design of mechatronic components are summarized and their applications to problems in automotive control are highlighted. First, the combined design, or co-design, of a smart artifact and its controller is considered. It is shown that the combined design of an artifact and its controller can lead to improved performance compared to sequential design. The coupling between the artifact and controller design problems is quantified, and methods for co-design are presented. The control proxy function method, which provides ease of design as in the sequential approach and approximates the performance of the co-design approach, is highlighted with application to the design of a passive/active automotive suspension. Second, the design for component swapping modularity (CSM) of a distributed controller for a smart product is discussed. CSM is realized by employing distributed controllers residing in networked smart components, with bidirectional communication over the network. Approaches to CSM design are presented, as well as applications of the method to a variable-cam-timing engine, and to enable battery swapping in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords

mechatronics automotive control co-design component swapping modularity active suspensions variable camshaft timing engine plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is pleased to acknowledge the collaborators on this research, i.e., Profs. P.Y. Papalambros and I.V. Kolmanovsky, as well as Drs. J. Reyer, H.K. Fathy, S.F. Alyaqout, D.L. Peters, M. Çakmakcı, S. Li and A. Ghaffari. The research featured in this article was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the U.S.A. Army Automotive Research Center, the Ford Motor Company, and United Technologies, Inc.

References

  1. 1.
    Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2001Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tryggvason G, Apelian D. Shaping Our World: Engineering Education for the 21st Century. Hoboken: Wiley, 2012Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Academy of Engineering. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. Retrieved from https://doi.org/www.greatachievements.org. 2018-08-01
  4. 4.
    National Academy of Engineering. Grand Challenges for Engineering. Retrieved from https://doi.org/www.engineeringchallenges.org. 2018-08-01
  5. 5.
    10 Emerging Technologies That Will Change the World. MIT Technology Review, 2003Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ulsoy A G, Peng H, Cakmakci M. Automotive Control Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reyer J A, Fathy H K, Papalambros P Y, et al. Comparison of combined embodiment design and control optimization strategies using optimality conditions. In: Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference. Pittsburgh, 2001Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fathy H K, Papalambros P Y, Reyer J A, et al. On the coupling between the plant and controller optimization problems. In: Proceedings of the 2001 American Control Conference. Arlington, 2001Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fathy H K, Bortoff S A, Copeland G S, et al. Nested optimization of an elevator and its gain-scheduled LQG controller. In: Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Dynamic Systems and Control. New Orleans, 2002, 119–126Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fathy H K. Combined plant and control optimization: Theory strategy and applications. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2002Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fathy H K, Hrovat D, Papalambros P Y, et al. Nested plant/controller optimization and its application to combined passive/active automotive suspensions. In: Proceedings of the 2003 American Control Conference. Denver, 2003Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fathy H K, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Integrated plant, observer and controller optimization with application to combined passive/active automotive suspensions. In: Proceedings of ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Dynamic Systems and Control, Volumes 1 and 2.Washington, D.C., 2003Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Quantification and use of system coupling in decomposed design optimization problems. In: Proceedings of ASME 2005 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Computers and Information in Engineering. Orlando, 2005Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Combined robust design and robust control of an electric DC motor. In: Proceedings of ASME IMECE. Chicago, 2006Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alyaqout S F. A multi-system optimization approach to coupling in robust design and control. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2006Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Coupling in design and robust control optimization. In: Proceedings of 2007 European Control Conference (ECC). Kos, 2007Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Combined design and robust control of vehicle active/passive suspension. In: Proceedings of 2007 European Control Conference (ECC). Kos, 2007Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peters D L, Kurabayashi K, Papalambros P Y, et al. Co-design of a MEMS actuator and its controller using frequency constraints. In: Proceedings of ASME 2008 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Parts A and B. Ann Arbor, 2008Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ulsoy A G, Papalambros P Y, Peters D L. Optimal co-design of controlled systems and their controllers. In: Proceedings of NSF CMMI Grantees Conference. Honolulu, 2009Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. On measures of coupling between the artifact and controller optimal design problems. In: Proceedings of ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Volume 2: 29th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Parts A and B. San Diego, 2009Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Relationship between coupling and the controllability Grammian in co-design problems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 American Control Conference. Baltimore, 2010Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Sequential co-design of an artifact and its controller via control proxy functions. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2010, 43(18): 125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peters D L. Coupling and controllability in optimal design and control. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2010Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Combined robust design and robust control of an electric DC motor. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2011, 16(3): 574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alyaqout S F, Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, et al. Generalized coupling management in complex engineering systems optimization. Journal of Mechanical Design, 2011, 133(9): 091005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Control proxy functions for sequential design and control optimization. Journal of Mechanical Design, 2011, 133(9): 091007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alyaqout S F, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Combined design and robust control of a vehicle passive/active suspension. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 2012, 59(4): 315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Patil R, Filipi Z, Fathy H K. Computationally efficient combined plant design and controller optimization using a coupling measure. Journal of Mechanical Design, 2012, 134(7): 071008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Sequential co-design of an artifact and its controller via control proxy functions. Mechatronics, 2013, 23(4): 409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peters D L, Papalambros P Y, Ulsoy A G. Relationship between coupling and the controllability Gramian in co-design problems. Mechatronics, 2015, 29: 36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peters D L. A procedure for evaluating the applicability of a control proxy function to optimal co-design. Journal of Engineering Design, 2016, 27(8): 515–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Bi-directional communication among “smart” components in a networked control system. In: Proceedings of the 2005 American Control Conference. Portland, 2005Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Improving component swapping modularity using bi-directional communication in networked control systems. In: Proceedings of ISFA 2006 International Symposium on Flexible Automation. Osaka, 2006Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Design of modular controllers for systems with smart networked components. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Design/Production of Machines and Dies/Molds. Çeşme, 2007Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Modular discrete optimal MIMO controller for a VCT engine. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference. St. Louis, 2009Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li S, Çakmakcı M, Kolmanovsky I, et al. Throttle actuator swapping modularity design for idle speed control. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference. St. Louis, 2009Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Improving component swapping modularity using bi-directional communication in networked control systems. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2009, 14(3): 307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Combined component swapping modularity for a VCT engine controller. In: Proceedings of ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Volume 2. Hollywood, 2009Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Çakmakcı M. Mechatronic design for component-swapping modularity using bi-directional communications in networked control systems. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2009Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li S, Kolmanovsky I V, Ulsoy A G. Direct optimal distributed controller design for component swapping modularity with application to ISC. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference. Baltimore, 2010Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Çakmakcı M, Ulsoy A G. Swappable distributed MIMO controller for a VCT engine. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2011, 19(5): 1168–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Li S, Kolmanovsky I V, Ulsoy A G. Battery swapping modularity design for HEVs using the augmented Lagrangian decomposition method. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference. San Francisco, 2011, 953–958Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li S, Kolmanovsky I V, Ulsoy A G. Distributed supervisory controller design for battery swapping modularity in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 2012, 134(4): 041013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li S, Kolmanovsky I V, Ulsoy A G. Direct optimal design for component swapping modularity in control systems. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2013, 18(1): 297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Li S. Distributed supervisory controller design for battery swapping modularity in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2011Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ghaffari A, Ulsoy A G. Experimental verification of component swapping modularity for precision contouring. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference. Seattle, 2016Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ghaffari A, Ulsoy A G. Design of distributed controllers for component swapping modularity using linear matrix inequalities. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics. Banff, 2016Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ulsoy A G. Design for ease of control and estimation. In: Proceedings of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. Minneapolis, 2016Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ghaffari A, Ulsoy A G. LMI-based design of distributed controllers to achieve component swapping modularity. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2017, PP(99): 1–8Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ghaffari A, Ulsoy A G. Component swapping modularity for distributed precision contouring. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2017, 22(6): 2625–2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Darwin C. On the Origin of Species. London: John Murray, 1859Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Koren Y, Heisel U, Jovane F, et al. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems. CIRP Annals, 1999, 48(2): 527–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ulrich K, Tung K. Fundamentals of product modularity. In: Proceedings of the 1991 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, ASME DE-Vol. 39. Atlanta, 1991, 73–79Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Butts K, Cook J, Davey C, et al. Automotive powertrain controller development using CACSD. In: Samad T, ed. Perspectives in Control: New Concepts and Applications. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the appropriate credit is given to the original author(s) and the source, and a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, indicating if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations