Advertisement

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 181–192 | Cite as

Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding

  • Hui Li
  • Likai Li
  • Neil J. Naples
  • Jeffrey W. Roblee
  • Allen Y. Yi
Research Article

Abstract

Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

Keywords

ultraprecision machining slow tool servo fast tool servo compression molding injection molding microlens arrays optical fabrication 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was partially based on work supported by an SBIR Phase I project from the National Science Foundation of the US (Grant No. 1315009), an SBIR Phase II project from the National Science Foundation of the US (Grant No. 1456291), and a research grant from the National Science Foundation of the US (Grant No. 1537212); Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this article were those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation of the US. The ISO 2.25 high-speed spindle used in this research was provided by Professional Instruments Inc. (www.airbearings. com). Authors also express sincere gratitude to Cedric Sze for some of the photos used in this publication.

References

  1. 1.
    AMETEK Precitech Inc. Precitech white paper directory. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.precitech.com/about/white_papers.htmlGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fuerschbach K, Rolland J P, Rolland-Thompson K P. Realizing freeform: A LWIR imager in a spherical package. In: Renewable Energy and the Environment. OSA, 2013, FW1B.2Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AMETEK Precitech Inc. Slow tool servo. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.precitech.com/machine_options/slow_tool_servo.htmlGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    AMETEK Precitech Inc. Adaptive control technology. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.precitech.com/machine_options/adaptive_ control_technology.htmlGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen Y. Thermal forming process for precision freeform optical mirrors and micro glass optics. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Columbus: The Ohio State University,2010Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang H, Scheiding S, Li L, et al. Manufacturing of a precision 3D microlens array on a steep curved substrate by injection molding process. Advanced Optical Technologies, 2013, 2(3): 257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levicron. Ultra-precision meets CNC performance. Retrieved from http://levicron.com/?lang = enGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohammadi H, Ravindra D, Kode S K, et al. Experimental work on micro laser-assisted diamond turning of silicon (111). Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 2015, 19: 125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klocke F, Dambon O, Bulla B. Diamond turning of aspheric steel molds for optics replication. SPIE Proceedings, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology XV, 2010, 7590: 75900BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brehl D E, Dow T A. Review of vibration-assisted machining. Precision Engineering, 2008, 32(3): 153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yi A Y, Jain A. Compression molding of aspherical glass lenses—A combined experimental and numerical analysis. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2005, 88(3): 579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang F, Chen Y, Klocke F, et al. Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 2009, 131(1): 011014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Opli Inc. Mobile phone objective camera optical design. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.opli.net/opli_magazine/eo/2013/mobilephone- objective-camera-optical-design.aspxGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schaub M, Schwiegerling J, Fest E, et al. Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture. Boca Raton: CRC Press,2016Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wippermann F C, Beckert E, Dannberg P, et al. Disposable low cost video endoscopes for straight and oblique viewing direction with simplified integration. SPIE Proceedings, Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies III, 2010, 7556: 755607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li H. Design, fabrication and evaluation of nonconventional optical components. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Columbus: The Ohio State University,2016Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim N W, Kim K W, Sin H C. Finite element analysis of low temperature thermal nanoimprint lithography using a viscoelastic model. Microelectronic Engineering, 2008, 85(9): 1858–1865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greis U, Kirchhof G. Injection molding of plastic optics. SPIE Proceedings, Optical Surface Technology, 1983, 381(6): 69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maruyama T, Kabe H. Sink mark phenomenon of injection-molding plastics. Kobunshi Ronbunshu, 1981, 38(4): 275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Su L, Yi A Y. Finite element calculation of refractive index in optical glass undergoing viscous relaxation and analysis of the effects of cooling rate and material properties. International Journal of Applied Glass Science, 2012, 3(3): 263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dambon O, Wang F, Klocke F, et al. Efficient mold manufacturing for precision glass molding. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, 2009, 27(3): 1445–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang F, Chen Y, Klocke F, et al. Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 2009, 131(1): 011014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huenten M, Hollstegge D, Wang F, et al. Wafer level glass optics: Precision glass molding as an alternative manufacturing approach. SPIE Proceedings, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/ Nano Optics and Photonics IV, 2011, 7927: 79270LCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Isayev A I. Orientation development in the injection molding of amorphous polymers. Polymer Engineering and Science, 1983, 23 (5): 271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim S W, Turng L S. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of injection molding filling of optical lens and multiscale geometry using finite element method. Polymer Engineering and Science, 2006, 46(9): 1263–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Li
    • 1
  • Likai Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Neil J. Naples
    • 1
  • Jeffrey W. Roblee
    • 3
  • Allen Y. Yi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Integrated System EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Nistica Inc.BridgewaterUSA
  3. 3.Ametek PrecitechKeeneUSA

Personalised recommendations