Advertisement

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 440–455 | Cite as

Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

  • Yuanzhang Sun
  • Xiyuan Ma
  • Jian Xu
  • Yi Bao
  • Siyang Liao
Review Article
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

Keywords

wind power long-distance transmission local consumption supermicrogrid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0900105) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51190105 and 51477122).

References

  1. 1.
    Hart E H, Stoutenburg E D, Jacobson M Z. The potential of intermittent renewables to meet electric power demand: Current methods and emerging analytical techniques. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012, 100(2): 322–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Erlich I, Shewarega F, Feltes C, et al. Offshore wind power generation technologies. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2013, 101(4): 891–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    GWEC. Global Wind Report 2015—Annual market update. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/vip/ GWEC-Global-Wind-2015-Report_April-2016_22_04.pdfGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hatziargyriou N, Zervos A. Wind power development in Europe. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2001, 89(12): 1765–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Paulus M, Borggrefe F. The potential of demand-side management in energy-intensive industries for electricity markets in Germany. Applied Energy, 2011, 88(2): 432–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ackermann T, Abbad J R, Dudurych I M, et al. European balancing act. IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, 2007, 5(6): 90–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Farahmand H, Aigner T, Doorman G L, et al. Balancing market integration in the Northern European continent: A 2030 case study. In: Proceedings of IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting. IEEE, 2013Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hammons T J, Lescale V F, Uecker K, et al. State of the art in ultrahigh-voltage transmission. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012, 100(2): 360–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016. Retrieved from bp.com/statisticalreviewGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Piwko R, Osborn D, Gramlich R, et al. Wind energy delivery issues [transmission planning and competitive electricity market operation]. IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, 2005, 3(6): 47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Swisher R, De Azua C R, Clendenin J. Strong winds on the horizon: Wind power comes of age. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2001, 89(12): 1757–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aparicio N, MacGill I, Rivier Abbad J, et al. Comparison of wind energy support policy and electricity market design in Europe, the United States, and Australia. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2012, 3(4): 809–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    U.S. Energy Information Administration. Electricity Data. Retrieved from http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data.cfm#generationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Energy Administration of China. The Utilization Hours of Many Generating Sets is Decreasing in 2015. 2016 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Purvins A, Zubaryeva A, Llorente M, et al. Challenges and options for a large wind power uptake by the European electricity system. Applied Energy, 2011, 88(5): 1461–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giebel G. A variance analysis of the capacity displaced by wind energy in Europe. Wind Energy (Chichester, England), 2007, 10 (1): 69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Østergaard P A. Geographic aggregation and wind power output variance in Denmark. Energy, 2008, 33(9): 1453–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aigner T, Jaehnert S, Doorman G L, et al. The effect of large-scale wind power on system balancing in Northern Europe. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2012, 3(4): 751–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ma X, Sun Y, Fang H, et al. Scenario-based multiobjective decision-making of optimal access point for wind power transmission corridor in the load centers. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(1): 229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    State Electricity Regulatory Commission of China. Supervision Report of Wind Power Utilization in Key Areas. 2012 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rebours Y, Kirschen D. A Survey of Definitions and Specifications of Reserve Services. University of Manchester Report. 2005Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmadi-Khatir A, Conejo A J, Cherkaoui R. Multi-area energy and reserve dispatch under wind uncertainty and equipment failures. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2013, 28(4): 4373–4383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang D, Shu Y, Ruan J, et al. Ultra high voltage transmission in China: Developments, current status and future prospects. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, 97(3): 555–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    National Development and Reform Commission. 12th Five-Year- Plan of Renewable Energy Development. 2012 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Heydt G T, Ayyanar R, Hedman K W, et al. Electric power and energy engineering: The first century. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012, 100(Special Centennial Issue): 1315–1328Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haileselassie T M, Uhlen K. Power system security in a meshed North Sea HVDC grid. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2013, 101(4): 978–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Egea-Alvarez A, Bianchi F, Junyent-Ferre A, et al. Voltage control of multiterminal VSC-HVDC transmission systems for offshore wind power plants: Design and implementation in a scaled platform. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2013, 60 (6): 2381–2391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang J, Jing T, Gomis-Bellmunt O, et al. Operation and control of multiterminal HVDC transmission for offshore wind farms. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2011, 26(4): 2596–2604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abdel-Khalik A S, Massoud A M, Elserougi A A, et al. Optimum power transmission-based droop control design for multi-terminal HVDC of offshore wind farms. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2013, 28(3): 3401–3409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kabouris J, Kanellos F D. Impacts of large-scale wind penetration on designing and operation of electric power systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2010, 1(2): 107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xie L, Carvalho PMS, Ferreira L A FM, et al. Wind integration in power systems: Operational challenges and possible solutions. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011, 99(1): 214–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ma X, Sun Y, Fang H. Scenario generation of wind power based on statistical uncertainty and variability. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(4): 894–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Piwko R, Meibom P, Holttinen H, et al. Penetrating insights: Lessons learned from large-scale wind power integration. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 2012, 10(2): 44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Navid N, Rosenwald G. Market solutions for managing ramp flexibility with high penetration of renewable resource. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2012, 3(4): 784–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    RWE. The Need for Smart Megawatts Power Generation in Europe—Facts & Trends. 2009Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lannoye E, Flynn D, O’Malley M. Evaluation of power system flexibility. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2012, 27(2): 922–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hossain M J, Pota H R, Mahmud M A, et al. Investigation of the impacts of large-scale wind power penetration on the angle and voltage stability of power systems. IEEE Systems Journal, 2012, 6 (1): 76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chompoo-inwai C, Lee W J, Fuangfoo P, et al. System impact study for the interconnection of wind generation and utility system. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2005, 41(1): 163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Slootweg J G, Kling W L. The impact of large scale wind power generation on power system oscillations. Electric Power Systems Research, 2003, 67(1): 9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Domínguez-García J L, Gomis-Bellmunt O, Bianchi F D, et al. Power oscillation damping supported by wind power: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012, 16(7): 4994–5006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tsourakis G, Nomikos B M, Vournas C D. Contribution of doubly fed wind generators to oscillation damping. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2009, 24(3): 783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gu Y, McCalley J D, Ni M. Coordinating large-scale wind integration and transmission planning. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2012, 3(4): 652–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu H, Chung C Y, Wong K P, et al. A chance constrained transmission network expansion planning method with consideration of load and wind farm uncertainties. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2009, 24(3): 1568–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Muñoz C, Sauma E, Contreras J, et al. Impact of high wind power penetration on transmission network expansion planning. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 2012, 6(12): 1281–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Manjure D P, Mishra Y, Brahma S, et al. Impact of wind power development on transmission planning at midwest ISO. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2012, 3(4): 845–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Salazar H, Liu C C, Chu R F. Decision analysis of merchant transmission investment by perpetual options theory. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2007, 22(3): 1194–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ni M, Yang Z. By leaps and bounds: Lessons learned from renewable energy growth in China. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 2012, 10(2): 37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Giebel G, Brownsword R, Kariniotakis G, et al. The State-of-the-Art in Short-Term Prediction of Wind Power: A Literature Overview, 2nd Edition. Risø National Laboratory, Technical Report. 2011Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Monteiro R B C, Miranda V, Botterud A, et al. Wind Power Forecasting: State of the Art 2009. Argonne National Laboratory, Technical Report. 2009Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tastu J, Pinson P, Trombe P J, et al. Probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation accounting for geographically dispersed information. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2014, 5(1): 480–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yang M, Fan S, Lee W J. Probabilistic short-term wind power forecast using componential sparse Bayesian learning. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2013, 49(6): 2783–2792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pinson P. Estimation of the uncertainty in wind power forecasting. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Paris: Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2006Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wang J, Shahidehpour M, Li Z. Security-constrained unit commitment with volatile wind power generation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2008, 23(3): 1319–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tuohy A, Meibom P, Denny E, et al. Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2009, 24(2): 592–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pinson P, Madsen H, Nielsen H A, et al. From probabilistic forecasts to statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production. Wind Energy (Chichester, England), 2009, 12(1): 51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jiang R, Wang J, Guan Y. Robust unit commitment with wind power and pumped storage hydro. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2012, 27(2): 800–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhao C, Guan Y. Unified stochastic and robust unit commitment. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2013, 28(3): 3353–3361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang N, Kang C, Kirschen D S, et al. Planning pumped storage capacity for wind power integration. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(2): 393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sahin C, Shahidehpour M, Erkmen I. Allocation of hourly reserve versus demand response for security-constrained scheduling of stochastic wind energy. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(1): 219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Botterud A, Zhou Z, Wang J, et al. Demand dispatch and probabilistic wind power forecasting in unit commitment and economic dispatch: A case study of Illinois. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(1): 250–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    De Jonghe C, Hobbs B F, Belmans R. Optimal generation mix with short-term demand response and wind penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2012, 27(2): 830–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lin W, Wen J, Liang J, et al. A three-terminal HVDC system to bundle wind farms with conventional power plants. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2013, 28(3): 2292–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Taggart S, James G, Dong Z, et al. The future of renewables linked by a transnational Asian grid. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012, 100 (2): 348–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ding Z, Guo Y, Wu D, et al. A market based scheme to integrate distributed wind energy. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2013, 4 (2): 976–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hammons T J. Integrating renewable energy sources into European grids. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 2008, 30(8): 462–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Obara S, Morizane Y, Morel J. A study of small-scale energy networks of the Japanese Syowa base in Antarctica by distributed engine generators. Applied Energy, 2013, 111: 113–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lasseter R H. Smart distribution: Coupled microgrids. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011, 99(6): 1074–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nikkhajoei H, Lasseter R H. Distributed generation interface to the CERTS microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2009, 24(3): 1598–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Li J, Ma X, Liu C C, et al. Distribution system restoration with microgrids using spanning tree search. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2014, 29(6): 3021–3029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bao I S, Kim J O. Reliability evaluation of customers in a microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2008, 23(3): 1416–1422Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhao B, Zhang X, Chen J, et al. Operation optimization of standalone microgrids considering lifetime characteristics of battery energy storage system. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(4): 934–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chang C A, Wu Y K, Chen W T, et al. A novel power system defense plan to cope with 30% wind power penetration in the isolated Penghu system. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2013, 49(4): 1669–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hatziargyriou N, Asano H, Iravani R, et al. Microgrids. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 2007, 5(4): 78–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marrero G A, Ramos-Real F J. Electricity generation cost in isolated system: The complementarities of natural gas and renewables in the Canary Islands. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010, 14(9): 2808–2818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rehman S, Mahbub Alam M, Meyer J P, et al. Feasibility study of a wind-PV-diesel hybrid power system for a village. Renewable Energy, 2012, 38(1): 258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kaldellis J, Kapsali M, Kavadias K. Energy balance analysis of wind-based pumped hydro storage systems in remote island electrical networks. Applied Energy, 2010, 87(8): 2427–2437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sun Y, Lin J, Song Y, et al. An industrial system powered by wind and coal for aluminum production: A case study of technical demonstration and economic feasibility. Energies, 2012, 5(12): 4844–4869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lin J, Sun Y, Song Y, et al. Wind power fluctuation smoothing controller based on risk assessment of grid frequency deviation in an isolated system. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2013, 4(2): 379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Xu J, Liao S, Sun Y, et al. An isolated industrial power system driven by wind-coal power for aluminum productions: A case study of frequency control using voltage adjusting. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2015, 30(1): 471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jiang H, Lin J, Song Y, et al. Demand side frequency control scheme in an isolated wind power system for industrial aluminum smelting production. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2014, 29(2): 844–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Liao S Y, Xu J, Sun Y, et al. Load-damping characteristic control method in an isolated power system with industrial voltagesensitive load. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2015, 2015 (31): 1118–1128Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cui T, Lin W, Sun Y, et al. Excitation voltage control for emergency frequency regulation of island power system with voltage-dependent loads. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2016, 31(2): 1204–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jiang H, Lin J, Song Y, et al. MPC-based frequency control with demand-side participation: A case study in an isolated windaluminum power system. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2015, 30(6): 3327–3337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sun Y, Liao S, Xu J, et al. Industrial implementation of a wide area measurement system based control scheme in an isolated power system driven by wind-coal power for aluminum productions. IET Generation, Transactions and Distribution, 2016, 10(8): 1877–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bao Y, Xu J, Sun Y, et al. An industrial verification of frequency regulation by electrolytic aluminum in an isolated power system. In: Proceedings of Power and Energy Society General Meeting. IEEE, 2016, 1–5Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bridges J E. Wind power energy storage for in situ shale oil recovery with minimal CO2 emissions. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2007, 22(1): 103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mozina C J. Wind-power generation: Impact of wind generators on distribution systems. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, 2011, 17(3): 37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lopes J P, Moreira C, Madureira A. Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2006, 21(2): 916–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Siddiqui A S, Marnay C. Distributed generation investment by a microgrid under uncertainty. Energy, 2008, 33(12): 1729–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chen S X, Gooi H B, Wang M Q. Sizing of energy storage for microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2012, 3(1): 142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zhou W, Lou C, Li Z, et al. Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar—Wind power generation systems. Applied Energy, 2010, 87(2): 380–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Luo C, Ooi B T. Frequency deviation of thermal power plants due to wind farms. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2006, 21 (3): 708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lew D, Brinkman G, Kumar N, et al. Impacts of wind and solar on emissions and wear and tear of fossil-fueled generators. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012, 1–8Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cardenas R, Pena R, Alepuz S, et al. Overview of control systems for the operation of DFIGs in wind energy applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2013, 60(7): 2776–2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ma H, Chowdhury B. Working towards frequency regulation with wind plants: Combined control approaches. IET Generation, Transactions and Distribution, 2010, 4(4): 308–316Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chang-Chien L R, Lin W T, Yin Y C. Enhancing frequency response control by DFIGs in the high wind penetrated power systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2011, 26(2): 710–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang Z, Sun Y, Lin J, et al. Coordinated frequency regulation by doubly fed induction generator-based wind power plants. IET Generation, Transactions and Distribution, 2012, 6(1): 38–47Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Babu C A, Ashok S. Peak Load Management in Electrolytic Process Industries. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2008, 23 (2): 399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    State Power Investment Corporation. Feasibility Study on the Demonstration Project of Circular Economy in East Inner Mongolia. 2010 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    National Development and Reform Commission. Notice on price policy improvement for onshore wind power. 2009. Retrieved from http://zfxxgk.ndrc.gov.cn/PublicItemView.aspx?ItemID =f52635-547c-490f-8334-7fdbdb5d057a (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ministry of Industry and Information of China. 12th Five-Year-Plan of Nonferrous Metals. 2011 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Information Website on China’s Industry. The 2015 statistics on provincial yield of electrolytic aluminum in China. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.chyxx.com/data/201511/356162.html (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Electrolytic Aluminum Industry. Why the production capacity is excess, while there are newly built projects? 2013. Retrieved from http://finance.people.com.cn/n/2013/0520/c1004-21536244.html (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuanzhang Sun
    • 1
  • Xiyuan Ma
    • 2
  • Jian Xu
    • 1
  • Yi Bao
    • 1
  • Siyang Liao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical EngineeringWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.China Southern Power Grid Research InstituteGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations