Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 312–320 | Cite as

Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

  • Maolin Cai
  • Yixuan Wang
  • Zongxia Jiao
  • Yan Shi
Open Access
Review Article


This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.


wind turbine hydraulic system fluid model control technology 


  1. 1.
    Jelavić M, Petrović V, Perić N. Estimation based individual pitch control of wind turbine. Automatika: Časopis Za Automatiku Mjerenje Elektroniku Računarstvo I Komunikacije, 2010, 51(2): 181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Muyeen S M, Takahashi R, Murata T, et al. Low voltage ride through capability enhancement of fixed speed wind generator. In: Proceedings of PowerTech. Bucharest: IEEE, 2009, 1–6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teninge A, Roye D, Bacha S, et al. Low voltage ride-through capabilities of wind plant combining different turbine technologies. In: Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. IEEE, 2009, 1–9Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albadi M H, El-Saadany E F. Wind turbines capacity factor modeling—A novel approach. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2009, 24(3): 1637–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang W, Tavner P J, Wilkinson M R. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of a wind turbine synchronous generator drive train. IET Renewable Power Generation, 2009, 3(1): 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geng H, Yang G. Robust pitch controller for output power levelling of variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine generator systems. IET Renewable Power Generation, 2009, 3(2): 168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kusiak A, Zhang Z, Li M. Optimization of wind turbine performance with data-driven models. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2010, 1(2): 66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen P, Siano P, Bak-Jensen B, et al. Stochastic optimization of wind turbine power factor using stochastic model of wind power. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2010, 1(1): 19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bao G, Shi J, Jiang J. A survy on variable speed constant frequency wind power systems with direct coupled generators. Small & Special Electrical Machines, 2008, 36(8): 52–55 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamzehlouia S, Izadian A. Modeling of hydraulic wind power transfers. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois. IEEE, 2012, 1–6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murrenhoff H. Recent sustainability related research results in fluid power. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Fluid Power and Mechatronics. IEEE, 2011, 991–1001Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kong X, Ai C, Wang J. A summary on the control system of hydrostatic drive train for wind turbines. Chinese Hydraulics & Pneumatics, 2013, 0(01): 1–6 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ai C. Research on speed control and power control of hydraulic type wind turbine. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Qinhuangdao: Yanshan University, 2012Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lei F. Designing and debugging of wind power hydraulic assembly system. China Science & Technology Overview, 2016, 3(6): 59 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yuan Y. Research on switched reluctance four port electromechanical energy transducer used for wind power. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Harbin: Harbin Institute of Technology, 2008 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whitby R D. Hydraulic fluids in wind turbines. Tribology & Lubrication Technology, 2010, 66(3): 72–73Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murrenhoff H. Servohydraulik—Geregelte Hydraulische Antriebe. 3rd ed. Aachen: RWTH, 2008Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kohmascher T. Modelling analysis and interpretation of hydraulic system concepts. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Nord Rhein-Westfalen: Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, 2008Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen J, Zhou Q. Application of hydraulic drive in wind power generation system. Movable Power Station & Vehicle, 2011, 42(1): 30–32 (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yao J, Li B, Kong X, et al. Displacement and dual-pressure compound control for fast forging hydraulic system. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2016, 30(1): 353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ai C, Chen W, Kong X, et al. Maximum power point tracking control of hydraulic type wind turbine based on feedback linearization. Control Theory & Applications, 2015, 32(6): 778–786 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kong A, Zhang X, Hao G. Simulation study on constant speed output control of fixed displacement pump-variable displacement motor hydraulic system. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Fluid Power and Mechatronics. IEEE, 2011, 276–281Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kong X, Ba K, Yu B, et al. Force control compensation method with variable load stiffness and damping of the hydraulic drive unit force control system. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2016, 29(3): 454–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kong X, Ba K, Yu B, et al. Trajectory sensitivity analysis of first order and second order on position control system of highly integrated valve-controlled cylinder. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2015, 29(10): 4445–4464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schachles. US Patent, 4503673, 1979-05-25Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Global M L H. Canada Patent, 03816799, 2005-09-14Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chapp Drive Company. Norway Patent, 200680040609.5. 2008-11-05Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen Z, Wen X. China Patent, 201010106583.8, 2010-08-04Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang Y, Kong X, Hao L, et al. Controls of hydraulic wind turbine. In: Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Systems. EDP Sciences, 2016Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vaezi M, Izadian A. Control of a hydraulic wind power transfer system under disturbances. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Application. IEEE, 2014, 886–890Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deldar M, Izadian A, Vaezi M, et al. Modeling of a hydraulic wind power transfer utilizing a proportional valve. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2015, 51(2): 1837–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seguro J V, Lambert T W. Modern estimation of the parameters of the Weibull wind speed distribution for wind energy analysis. Journal ofWind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 2000, 85(1): 75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang X. Parameter estimate method application of Weibull distribution. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 1996, 54(1): 108–116 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhi L, Li Q, Hu F. Field measurements of strong wind characteristics near ground in urban area. Journal of Hunan University (Natural Sciences), 2009, 36(2): 8–12 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sun C. Study of control methods of wind power system. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Changsha: Hunan University, 2008, 85–90 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sun J. Research on wind farm modeling and simulating. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2004, 19–23 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Welfonder E, Neifer R, Spanner M. Development and experimental identification of dynamic models for wind turbines. Control Engineering Practice, 1997, 5(1): 63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lojowska A, Kurowicka D, Papaefthymiou G, et al. Advantages of ARMA-GARCH wind speed time series modeling. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems. IEEE, 2010, 83–88Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang X, Liu X. Application of ARMA time series model. Techniques of Automation and Applications, 2008, 27(8): 65–66 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nichita C, Luca D, Dakyo B, et al. Large band simulation of the wind speed for real time wind turbine simulators. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2002, 17(4): 523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abo-Khalil A G, Lee D C. MPPT control of wind generation systems based on estimated wind speed using SVR. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2008, 55(3): 1489–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    He P, Hu S, Huang H, et al. Research on intelligent controller for large-scale wind turbine power generator with active stall and pitch control. Water Power, 2008, 34(12): 100–102 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yang J. Wind speed model of wind turbine suitable for dynamic analysis. Journal of Southwest University of Science & Technology, 2010, 25(1): 39–44 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wu X, Zhang X, Yin Y, et al. Application of models of the wind turbine induction generators (WTIGs) to wind power system dynamic stability analysis. Power System Technology, 1998, 22(6): 68–72 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Anderson P M, Bose A. Stability simulation of wind turbine systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 1983, PAS-102(12): 3791–3795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yang X. Research on the performance of wind turbine drive train. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Chongqing: Chongqing University, 2008, 7–9 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kishinami K, Suzuki J, Sugiyama H, et al. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of H. A. W. T.: In case of NACA44 series blade equipped with a single-slotted flap. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Environmental Engineering. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003, 438–441Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nikranjbar A, Shahrbabaki A N. Simulation and control of wind turbine using hydrostatic drive train. Majlesi Journal of Energy Management, 2013, 2(2): 12–17Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang Z. Modern Wind Power Technology and Its Engineering Application. Beijing: Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2010, 24–27 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jiang Z, Yu X. Modeling and control of an integrated wind power generation and energy storage system. In: Proceedings of IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting. IEEE, 2009, 1–8Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Burton T, Sharpe D, Jenkins N, et al. Wind Energy Handbook, 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fitch E C, Hong I T. Hydraulic Component Design and Selection. Stillwater: Bardyne Inc., 2004Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Merritt H E. Hydraulic Control Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1967Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blackburn J F. Fluid Power Control. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gorbeshko M. Development of mathematical models for the hydraulic machinery of systems controlling the moving components. Hydrotechnical Construction, 1997, 31(12): 745–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Manring N. Hydraulic Control Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Akkaya A V. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission control system. Sadhana, 2006, 31(5): 543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gelazanskas L, Baranauskas A, Gamage K A A, et al. Hybrid wind power balance control strategy using thermal power, hydro power and flow batteries. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 2016, 74: 310–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Automation Science and Electrical EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations