Investigation on the behavior of frozen silty clay subjected to monotonic and cyclic triaxial loading

Abstract

This paper aims to assess the characteristics of the deformation and strength behavior of frozen soils at different temperatures under monotonic and cyclic triaxial conditions. The deformation and failure patterns of the specimens change from ductility to brittleness with decreasing temperatures under both monotonic and cyclic loadings. The development of axial strain and stiffness with increasing number of cycles for the soils under cyclic loading is presented and analyzed in detail. A collapse behavior in strength and stiffness is observed in tests of frozen soils at − 5 °C, − 7 °C and − 9 °C. The difference in frictional sliding between the samples with high ductility and those with high brittleness is attributed to the different patterns of deformation and failure. The dynamic modulus is plotted versus axial strain, and the state where the stiffness begins to decrease is employed as the criterion of cyclic failure. The proposed criterion of cyclic failure is verified to be more suitable for frozen soils with high brittleness and seems to be consistent with the peak strength under monotonic loading. Finally, the cyclic stress ratios are plotted against the number of cycles up to this failure criterion, and the effect of temperatures on cyclic strength is evaluated.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Change history

  • 22 February 2020

    In the original publication, the figures��7 to 12 are incorrect. The correct figures��7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 are provided below:

References

  1. 1.

    Al-Hunaidi M, Chen P, Rainer J, Tremblay M (1996) Shear moduli and damping in frozen and unfrozen clay by resonant column tests. Can Geotech J 33(3):510–514

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Andersen GR, Swan CW, Ladd CC, Germaine JT (1995) Small-strain behavior of frozen sand in triaxial compression. Can Geotech J 32(3):428–451

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Arenson LU, Springman SM (2005) Mathematical descriptions for the behaviour of ice-rich frozen soils at temperatures close to 0 C. Can Geotech J 42(2):431–442

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Arenson LU, Springman SM (2005) Triaxial constant stress and constant strain rate tests on ice-rich permafrost samples. Can Geotech J 42(2):412–430

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chamberlain E, Groves C, Perham R (1972) The mechanical behaviour of frozen earth materials under high pressure triaxial test conditions. Geotechnique 22:469–483

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cheng G (2005) A roadbed cooling approach for the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Cold Reg Sci Technol 42(2):169–176

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Czurda KA, Hohmann M (1997) Freezing effect on shear strength of clayey soils. Appl Clay Sci 12(1–2):165–187

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Da Re G, Germaine JT, Ladd CC (2003) Triaxial testing of frozen sand: equipment and example results. J Cold Reg Eng 17(3):90–118

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hu X, Fang T (2014) Numerical simulation of temperature field at the active freeze period in tunnel construction using freeze-sealing pipe roof method. In: Ding W, Li X (eds) Geo-Shanghai 2014: tunnel and underground construction, ASCE, Shanghai, pp 731–741

  10. 10.

    Hu X, Deng S, Ren H (2016) In situ test study on freezing scheme of freeze-sealing pipe roof applied to the gongbei tunnel in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge. Appl Sci 7(1):27

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ishihara K (1996) Soil behaviour in earthquake geotechnics. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, pp 219–221

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kornfield T, Zubeck H (2013) Triaxial testing of frozen soils-state of the art. In: Zubeck H, Yang Z (eds) Selected technical papers STP1568: mechanical properties of frozen soils. ASTM International, pp 76–85

  13. 13.

    Lackner R, Amon A, Lagger H (2005) Artificial ground freezing of fully saturated soil: thermal problem. J Eng Mech 131(2):211–220

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lai Y, Xu X, Dong Y, Li S (2013) Present situation and prospect of mechanical research on frozen soils in china. Cold Reg Sci Technol 87(87):6–18

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Lai Y, Xu X, Yu W, Qi J (2014) An experimental investigation of the mechanical behavior and a hyperplastic constitutive model of frozen loess. Int J Eng Sci 84:29–53

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Li JC, Baladi GY, Andersland OB (1979) Cyclic triaxial tests on frozen sand. Eng Geol 13(1–4):233–246

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Li Q, Ling X, Hu J, Zhou Z (2019) Residual deformation and stiffness changes of frozen soils subjected to high-and low-amplitude cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 56(2):263–274

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Liu E, Lai Y, Liao M, Liu X, Hou F (2016) Fatigue and damage properties of frozen silty sand samples subjected to cyclic triaxial test. Can Geotech J 53:1939–1951

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ling X, Li Q, Wang L, Zhang F, An L, Xu P (2013) Stiffness and damping radio evolution of frozen clays under long-term low-level repeated cyclic loading: experimental evidence and evolution model. Cold Reg Sci Technol 86:45–54

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ma W, Wu Z, Zhang L, Chang X (1999) Analyses of process on the strength decrease in frozen soils under high confining pressures. Cold Reg Sci Technol 29:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ma W, Cheng G, Wu Q (2009) Construction on permafrost foundations: lessons learned from the Qinghai-Tibet railroad. Cold Reg Sci Technol 59(1):3–11

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ma L, Qi J, Fan Y, Yao X (2016) Experimental study on variability in mechanical properties of a frozen sand as determined in triaxial compression tests. Acta Geotech 11(1):61–70

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Parameswaran VR (1980) Deformation behaviour and strength of frozen sand. Can Geotech J 17(1):74–88

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Qi J, Ma W (2007) A new criterion for strength of frozen sand under quick triaxial compression considering effect of confining pressure. Acta Geotech 2(3):221

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Sheng D, Zhang S, Niu F, Cheng G (2014) A potential new frost heave mechanism in high-speed railway embankments. Geotechnique 64:144–154

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Vaziri H, Han Y (1991) Full-scale field studies of the dynamic response of piles embedded in partially frozen soils. Can Geotech J 28(5):708–718

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Vinson TS, Chaichanavong T, Li JC (1978) Dynamic testing of frozen soils under simulated earthquake loading conditions. ASTM Special Technical Publication, West Conshohocken, pp 65–71

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Wang DY, Ma W, Wen Z, Chang XX (2008) Study on strength of artificially frozen soils in deep alluvium. Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 23(4):381–388

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Wang J, Nishimura S, Okajima S, Joshi BR (2018) Small-strain deformation characteristics of frozen clay from static testing. Géotechnique 1–12

  30. 30.

    Wood DM (1990) Soil behaviour and critical state soil mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wheeler SJ, Sivakumar V (1995) An elasto-plastic critical state framework for unsaturated soil. Géotechnique 45(1):35–53

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Yuko Yamamoto, Springmansarah M (2014) Axial compression stress path tests on artificial frozen soil samples. Can Geotech J 51(10):1178–1195

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Yang P, Ke JM, Wang JG, Chow YK, Zhu FB (2006) Numerical simulation of frost heave with coupled water freezing, temperature and stress fields in tunnel excavation. Comput Geotech 33(6):330–340

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Zhang D, Li Q, Liu E, Liu X, Zhang G, Song B (2019) Dynamic properties of frozen silty soils with different coarse-grained contents subjected to cyclic triaxial loading. Cold Reg Sci Technol 157:64–85

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Zhang G, Liu E, Chen S, Zhang D, Liu X, Yin X, Song B (2018) Effects of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests on the mechanical properties of frozen sandstone samples using real-time CT scanning technique. Int J Phys Model Geotech. https://doi.org/10.1680/jphmg.18.00006

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Zhang S, Tang CA, Zhang XD, Zhang ZC, Jin JX (2015) Cumulative plastic strain of frozen aeolian soil under highway dynamic loading. Cold Reg Sci Technol 120:89–95

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Zhou Z, Ma W, Zhang S, Du H, Mu Y, Li G (2016) Multiaxial creep of frozen loess. Mech Mater 95:172–191

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Zhou Z, Ma W, Zhang S, Mu Y, Li G (2018) Effect of freeze-thaw cycles in mechanical behaviors of frozen loess. Cold Reg Sci Technol 146:9–18

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Zhou Z, Ma W, Zhang S, Du H, Mu Y, Li G (2018) Damage evolution and recrystallization enhancement of frozen loess. Int J Damage Mech 27(8):1131–1155

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate the valuable comments from the anonymous reviewers which made the submitted paper very much improved. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the financial support of (1) the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51708522, 51769018, 51879131, 41627801 and 11702304), (2) the Heilongjiang Provincial Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. E2018059) and (3) the project supported by science and technology department of Jiangxi province of China (Grant No. 20161BBG70084).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Qionglin Li.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, X., Li, Q. & Xu, G. Investigation on the behavior of frozen silty clay subjected to monotonic and cyclic triaxial loading. Acta Geotech. 15, 1289–1302 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-019-00826-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cyclic strength
  • Deformation mechanism
  • Frozen soils
  • Stiffness
  • Triaxial test