Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 444–451 | Cite as

Phase separation morphology and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of bismaleimide laminates toughened by thermoplastics with triphenylphosphine oxide group

Article

Abstract

Toughness improvement of bismaleimide (BMI) resin is very important for its application in composite materials. Blending with thermoplastic polymer is usually used to increase the toughness of BMI matrix. In this work we prepared two thermoplastic polymers with polar triphenylphosphine oxide group in the polymer backbone. The synthesized thermoplastics with different polarities were investigated by several physicochemical methods. Then through scanning electronic microscopy we observed the phase separation morphology of BMI blends at different doping concentrations of thermoplastics. Additionally mode II interlaminar fracture toughness G IIC of BMI laminates toughened with thermoplastics by ex-situ method was examined. The results showed that thermoplastic with strong polarity would bind tightly with BMI during curing and the phase-separation structure might be fixed at the primary stage; while secondary phase separation could happen in a relatively weak polarity system. It indicates that by regulating the polarity of thermoplastic, we may control the phase separation morphologies of blending system and the mechanical properties of composite.

Keywords

thermoplastic phase separation blends triphenylphosphine oxide bismaleimide ex-situ toughening interlaminar fracture toughness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kurdi J, Kumar A. Synthesis and characterization of modified bismaleimide/polysulfone semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. J Appl Polym Sci, 2006, 102: 369–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sawaryn C, Landfester K, Taden A. Advanced chemically induced phase separation in thermosets: Polybenzoxazines toughened with multifunctional thermoplastic main-chain benzoxazine prepolymers. Polymer, 2011, 52: 3277–3287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rico M, López J, Montero B, et al. Phase separation and morphology development in a thermoplastic-modified toughened epoxy. Eur Polymer J, 2012, 48: 1660–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tan Y, Wang X, Wu D. Preparation, microstructures, and properties of long-glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites based on polycarbonate/poly(butylene terephthalate) alloys. J Reinf Plast Comp, 2015, 34: 1804–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Verchere D, Sautereau H, Pascault J P, et al. Rubber-modified epoxies. I. Influence of carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile random copolymers (CTBN) on the polymerization and phase separation processes. J Appl Polym Sci, 1990, 41: 467–485Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Verchere D, Pascault J P, Sautereau H, et al. Rubber-modified epoxies. II. Influence of the cure schedule and rubber concentration on the generated morphology. J Appl Polym Sci, 1991, 42: 701–716Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Verchere D, Pascault J P, Sautereau H, et al. Rubber-modified epoxies. IV. Influence of morphology on mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci, 1991, 43: 293–304Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu Y F, Zhang Z C, Gan W J, et al. Effect of polyethersulfone on the mechanical and rheological properties of polyetherimide-modified epoxy systems. Ind Eng Chem Res, 2003, 42: 3250–3256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu X Y, Yu Y F, Wang M H, et al. Study on the polyethersulfone/bismaleimide blends: Morphology and rheology during isothermal curing. J Mater Sci, 2007, 42: 2150–2156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu X Y, Zhan G Z, Han Z W, et al. Phase morphology and mechanical properties of a poly(ether sulfone)-modified bismaleimide resin. J Appl Polym Sci, 2007, 106: 77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yun N G, Won Y G, Kim S C. Toughening of carbon fiber/epoxy composite by inserting polysulfone film to form morphology spectrum. Polymer, 2004, 45: 6953–6958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iijima T, Hayashi N, Oyama T, et al. Modification of bismaleimide resin by soluble poly(ester imide) containing trimellitimide moieties. Polym Int, 2004, 53: 1417–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Inoue T. Reaction-induced phase decomposition in polymer blends. Prog Polymer Sci, 1995, 20: 119–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim B S, Chiba T, Inoue T. Morphology development via reaction-induced phase separation in epoxy/poly(ether sulfone) blends: Morphology control using poly(ether sulfone) with functional end-groups. Polymer, 1995, 36: 43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu F H, Wang Z G, Liu D, et al. Curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol- A epoxy resin using a poly(aryl ether ketone) bearing pendant carboxyl groups as macromolecular curing agent. Polym Int, 2009, 58: 912–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hamerton I, Mc Namara L T, Howlin B J, et al. Toughening mechanisms in aromatic polybenzoxazines using thermoplastic oligomers and telechelics. Macromolecules, 2014, 47: 1946–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li Y, Wang D, Ma H. Improving interlaminar fracture toughness of flax fiber/epoxy composites with chopped flax yarn interleaving. Sci China Tech Sci, 2015, 58: 1745–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu X Y, Yu Y F, Li S J. Viscoelastic phase separation in polyethersulfone modified bismaleimide resin. Eur Polymer J, 2006, 42: 835–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ma X Q, Gu Y Z, Li M, et al. Investigation of carbon fiber composite stiffened skin with vacuum assisted resin infusion/prepreg co-curing process. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57: 1956–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng Q F, Fang Z P, Yi X S, et al. “Ex situ” concept for toughening the RTMable BMI matrix composites, Part I: Improving the interlaminar fracture toughness. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008, 109: 1625–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cheng Q F, Fang Z P, Yi X S, et al. Ex-situ concept for toughening the RTMable BMI matrix composites. II: Improving the compression after impact. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008, 108: 2211–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guo M C, Yi X S. The production of tough, electrically conductive carbon fiber composite laminates for use in airframes. Carbon, 2013, 58: 241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guo M C, Yi X S, Liu G, et al. Simultaneously increasing the electrical conductivity and fracture toughness of carbon–fiber composites by using silver nanowires-loaded interleaves. Composites Sci Tech, 2014, 97: 27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cheng Q F, Fang Z P, Xu Y H, et al. Morphological and spatial effects on toughness and impact damage resistance of PAEK-toughened BMI and graphite fiber composite laminates. Chin J Aeronautics, 2009, 22: 87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu X G, Zhou Z G, Hei Y W, et al. Improving compression-after-impact performance of carbon–fiber composites by CNTs/thermoplastic hybrid film interlayer. Composites Sci Tech, 2014, 95: 75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rehman H U, Schmidt H, Ahmad Z. Synthesis and characterization of polyimide-silica hybrids: Effect of matrix polarity on the mechanical and thermal properties. J Macromol Sci Part A, 2006, 43: 703–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tian L, Zhao P P, Li X J, et al. Large-scale fabrication of polymer microcavities with adjustable openings and surface roughness regulated by the polarity of both seed surface and monomers. Macromol Rapid Commun, 2016, 37: 47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Matsumoto F, Iwai T, Moriwaki K, et al. Controlling the polarity of fullerene derivatives to optimize nanomorphology in blend films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 4803–4810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sun S J, Guo M C, Yi X S, et al. Preparation and characterization of a naphthalene-modified poly(aryl ether ketone) and its phase separation morphology with bismaleimide resin. Polym Bull, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s00289-016-1787-zGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hansen C M. Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User’s Handbook. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2007. 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Standard of Chinese Aviation Industry. Testing method for mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (HB 7403-96). 1996Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kilinc M, Cakal G O, Bayram G, et al. Flame retardancy and mechanical properties of pet-based composites containing phosphorus and boron-based additives. J Appl Polym Sci, 2015, 132: 42016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen X T, Sun H, Tang X D, et al. Structure and properties of triphenylphosphine-contained poly(ether ether ketone ketone). Chem J Chin Univ, 2007, 28: 999–1001Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yi X S, An X, Tang B, et al. Ex-situ formation periodic interlayer structure to improve significantly the impact damage resistance of carbon laminates. Adv Eng Mater, 2003, 5: 729–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guo Z H, Li Z Q, Liu J S, et al. Ex-situ method for toughening glass/epoxy composites by interlaminar films made of polyetherketone cardo and calcium sulfate whisker. J Reinf Plast Comp, 2014, 33: 1966–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rutnakornpituk M. Thermoplastic toughened epoxy networks and their toughening mechanisms in some systems. Naresuan Univ J, 2005, 13: 73–83Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zucchi I A, Galante M J, Williams R J J. Comparison of morphologies and mechanical properties of crosslinked epoxies modified by polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) or by the corresponding block copolymer polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate). Polymer, 2005, 46: 2603–2609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L’Abee R, Goossens H, van Duin M. Thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained by reaction-induced phase separation: Interplay between phase separation dynamics, final morphology and mechanical properties. Polymer, 2008, 49: 2288–2297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ignatova T D, Kosyanchuk L F, Todosiychuk T T, et al. Reactioninduced phase separation and structure formation in polymer blends. Compos Interface, 2011, 18: 185–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of Advanced CompositesBeijing Institute of Aeronautical MaterialsBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations