Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 735–744 | Cite as

Structures of antimutagenic constituents in the peels of Citrus limon

  • Takahiro Matsumoto
  • Kazuki Takahashi
  • Sumire Kanayama
  • Yuka Nakano
  • Hiromi Imai
  • Masumi Kibi
  • Daisuke Imahori
  • Tomohiro Hasei
  • Tetsushi Watanabe
Original Paper


The methanolic extracts from the peels of Citrus limon were found to show antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the Ames test. From the methanolic extracts, four new coumarins (wakayamalimonol A–D) and a new furanocoumarin (wakayamalimonol E) were isolated together with fifteen known compounds. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined by chemical synthesis and the modified Mosher’s method. Among the isolated constituents, coumarins, furanocoumarins, and limonoids showed antimutagenic effects in the Ames test. One of the major constituent, limonin, showed significant antimutagenic effects against mitomycinC and PhIP in the micronucleus test in vivo.


Citrus limon Antimutagenic effects Coumarin Furanocoumarin Limonoid 



This research was supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Scientific and Technology)—Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2015–2019 and by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K15473.

Supplementary material

11418_2017_1108_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3931 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public HealthKyoto Pharmaceutical UniversityKyotoJapan

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