Evaluation of environmental health of the Kolomenskoye Park under anthropogenic pressure from Moscow City
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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the environmental state of the territory of the famous Russian landscape-architectural museum Kolomenskoye. This park reserve is located on the left bank of the Moscow River in very close proximity to a heavy industrial area of Moscow and a major highway. The museum’s territory is of a concern to the environmental state, and our data is a part of the monitoring program.
Materials and methods
Assessments of snow, snow run-off, and soils were carried out to describe the current state of the environment. Analyses of the pH, major cations, conductivity, heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu), and bioassay techniques were used to assess Kolomenskoye’s area.
Results and discussion
The content of acid forms of heavy metals (HM) in soils varied widely (Cu—1.3–21.6; Zn—2.7–30.2; Cd—0.07–3.48; Pb—2.21–15.64 mg kg−1). High concentrations of Cd (3.48 mg kg−1) were found at a distance from the highway, while the other parameters were at an accepted level. Meltwaters significantly increased the “leaching” of almost all soluble components, especially Na+ ions (1–70 mg l−1) and Ca2+ (10–340 mg l−1) ones. The total load of HM (the sum of HM: Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni) near the road (2 m from the fence to the park) was 470 mg kg−1 and at the control plot (150 m from the fence)—it was 590 mg kg−1, i.e., almost 20% more. The toxicity determined by different test objects was observed near the road.
The data indicate a real threat of the pollution, not only for the territories adjacent to the highway but also to the remote areas. The intensity of pollutions is associated with the distance from the road and migrations of heavy metals. Their intensive penetration into the territory is mainly connected with small dust fractions.
KeywordsBioassay Heavy metals Kolomenskoye museum-reserve Snow samples
The authors highly appreciate the staff of the Kolomenskoye museum-reserve for their assistance in the research conduction. We are grateful to our reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments. We sincerely thank the Editorial Manager of the Journal Moira Ledger for her attention and guidance. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Polly Chelton for the language support.
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