Distribution and diversity of magnetotactic bacteria in sediments of the Yellow Sea continental shelf
- 130 Downloads
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in sediments of freshwater and marine habitats. Most studies of marine MTB have concerned intertidal zones, and there have been few reports of MTB from seafloor sediments. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity and spatial distribution of MTB on the continent shelf of the Yellow Sea.
Materials and methods
Sediments from the continental shelf were collected from the Yellow Sea in August 2015 (summer) and January 2016 (winter). Magnetotactic bacteria were enriched by a permanent magnet. The number of MTB was counted. The diversity of MTB was identified based on high-throughput sequencing and Silva database and nt/nr database. Environmental factors including bottom temperature and salinity, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS), total organic carbon (TOC), concentration of iron, and the sediment grain size were measured.
Results and discussion
Magnetotactic bacteria were distributed widely in the Yellow Sea, at abundances of 5–2400 ind./dm3 in summer and 5–820 ind./dm3 in winter. The dominant MTB at most sampling stations were cocci, although rod-shaped MTB dominated at one station (H17). High-throughput sequencing distinguished 2669 reads for putative MTB in summer and 3271 in winter, and these were classified into 72 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In both summer and winter, most reads (> 74%) and OTUs (> 50%) of putative MTB belonged to the Nitrospirae. The MTB abundance was significantly correlated with sediment grain size. The MTB abundance was highest at station H17, where the sediment grain size was larger than at other stations.
We present a systematic assessment of the spatial distribution and diversity of MTB in sediments of the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea. Our data suggest that diverse MTB are widely distributed in the seafloor sediment of the Yellow Sea, with Nitrospirae likely being the dominating group, and that the abundance of MTB are influenced by sediment grain size.
KeywordsContinental shelf Magnetotactic bacteria Nitrospirae Spatial distribution Sediment grain size Yellow Sea
We thank Yi Dong, Jia Liu, and Zhao-Jie Teng for their helpful discussions, and Ming Jiang and Xi-Cheng Ma for aiding with our TEM observations and EDXS analysis. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41776131, 41330962 and 41776130) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China—Shandong Joint Fund (U1606404 and U1706208).
- Abreu F, Martins JL, Silveira TS, Keim CN, Lins de Barros HGP, Filho FJG, Lins U (2007) Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis’, a multicellular, magnetotactic prokaryote from a hypersallne environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57(6):1318–1322. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64857-0
- Bazylinski DA (1999) Synthesis of the bacterial magnetosome: the making of a magnetic personality. Int Microbiol 2(2):71–80Google Scholar
- Chen Y, Zhang R, Du H, Pan H, Zhang W, Zhou K, Li J, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2015) A novel species of ellipsoidal multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes from Lake Yuehu in China. Environ Microbiol 17(3):637–647. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12480
- Chen Y, Zhang W, Zhou K, Pan H, Du H, Xu C, Xu J, Pradel N, Santini CL, Li J, Huang H, Pan Y, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2016) Novel species and expanded distribution of ellipsoidal multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes. Environ Microbiol Rep 8(2):218–226. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12371
- Dai X, Zhou H, Chen Y, Cai C, Zhou Y, Zhou S, Qu L (2002) Diversity of bacteria in sediments of Nansha sea area of South China Sea. Prog Nat Sci 12:479–484 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Dong Y, Li J, Zhang WC, Zhang W, Zhao Y, Xiao T, Wu L-F, Pan H (2016) The detection of magnetotactic bacteria in deep sea sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. Environ Microbiol Rep 8(2):239–249. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12374
- Du H, Chen Y, Zhang R, Pan H, Zhang W, Zhou K, Wu L-F, Xiao T (2015) Temporal distributions and environmental adaptations of two types of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote in the sediments of Lake Yuehu, China. Environ Microbiol Rep 7(3):538–546. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12284
- Fuduche M, Postec A, Davidson S, Chauvin JP, Galès G, Hirschler-Réa A, Ollivier B, Wu L-F, Pradel N (2015) Diversity of magnetotactic bacteria from a French pristine Mediterranean area. Curr Microbiol 70(4):499–505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-014-0745-y
- Lin W, Wang Y, Pan Y (2012b) Short-term effects of temperature on the abundance and diversity of magnetotactic cocci. Microbiology 1:53–63Google Scholar
- Martins JL, Silveira TS, Abreu F, de Almeida FP, Rosado AS, Lins U (2012) Spatiotemporal distribution of the magnetotactic multicellular prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis in a Brazilian hypersaline lagoon and in microcosms. Int Microbiol 15(3):141–149. https://doi.org/10.2436/20.1501.01.167Google Scholar
- Martins JL, Silveira TS, Silva KT, Lins U (2009) Salinity dependence of the distribution of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes in a hypersaline lagoon. Int Microbiol 12(3):193–201Google Scholar
- Pan H, Zhu K, Song T, Yu-Zhang K, Lefèvre C, Xing S, Liu M, Zhao S, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2008) Characterization of a homogeneous taxonomic group of marine magnetotactic cocci within a low tide zone in the China Sea. Environ Microbiol 10(5):1158–1164. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01532.x
- Postec A, Tapia N, Bernadac A, Joseph M, Davidson S, Wu L-F, Ollivier B, Pradel N (2012) Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean coast subjected to oil industry activities. Microb Ecol 63(1):1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-011-9910-z
- Sobrinho RL, Lins U, Bernardes MC (2011) Geochemical characteristics related to the gregite-producing multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis in a hypersaline lagoon. Geomicrobiol J 28(8):705–713. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2010.514027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang R, Chen Y, Zhou K, Zhang W, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2013a) Vertical distribution characteristics of magnetotactic bacteria and the relationship with environmental factors in intertidal zone of Qingdao. Mar Sci 37:24–31 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Zhang W, Zhou K, Pan H, Du H, Chen Y, Zhang R, Ye W, Lu C, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2013b) Novel rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(9):3137–3140. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03869-12
- Zhao Y, Yu D (1983) Geochemical analysis of the sediments of the Huanghai Sea. Haiyang Yu Huzhao 14:433–446 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhu K, Pan H, Li J, Yu-Zhang K, Zhang S, Zhang W, Zhou K, Yue H, Pan Y, Xiao T, Wu L-F (2010) Isolation and characterization of a marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture QH-2 from an intertidal zone of the China Sea. Res Microbiol 161(4):276–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2010.02.003