Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1720–1728 | Cite as

Predicting bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in marine sediments using chemical methods

  • Dayana M. dos Santos
  • Mike Williams
  • Rai Kookana
  • Mary Rosa R. de Marchi
Sediments, Sec 1 • Sediment Quality and Impact Assessment • Research Article



A comparison was made between three chemical methods to predict bioaccessibility of triclosan (TCS), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in marine sediments, involving an exchangeable (E) value, butanol extractions, and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-HPCD) extractions.

Materials and methods

A 60-day batch experiment was undertaken where the aqueous phase was analyzed by GC-MS/MS. The bioaccessibility study based on the E value model involved monitoring stable isotopes exchanging with the bioaccessible phase, while this exchangeability was also estimated with sediment extractions with butanol and β-HPCD, respectively.

Results and discussion

Based on the E value method, TCS was readily exchangeable for up to 7 days, while after this period become virtually non-exchangeable (not detected in aqueous phase). This trend was also evident for butanol and β-HPCD extractions, suggesting TCS was strongly complexed with the matrix. For BPA and EE2, the fraction considered exchangeable was higher after 14 days and the extraction efficiency was slightly higher for the butanol treatment.


Chemical methods to predict bioaccessibility in marine sediments have demonstrated differences between selected contaminants, but agreement between methods. Triclosan shows the highest affinity with tested sediments, some exchangeability in the first days of interaction of E value experiment as well as observed for extraction methods. However, the highest capacity to be extracted from already-sorbed phase was observed for BPA, showed in both extraction methods, and confirming its mobility and bioaccessibility in sediments over the time.


Emerging contaminant Isotopic exchangeability Sediment Sorption bioaccessible 



The authors thank Jun Du and Sheridan Martin (CSIRO Land and Water) for contaminant analysis and sample preparation and Sam Gaylard (SA Environment Protection Authority) for making sediment samples available.

Funding information

Dr. Dayana Moscardi dos Santos thanks the FAPESP (grant no. 12/17898-7 and 13/09437-2, São Paulo Research Foundation) for the financial support.

Supplementary material

11368_2017_1905_MOESM1_ESM.docx (149 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 148 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryUniv. Estadual Paulista - UNESPAraraquaraBrazil
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentState University of Londrina - UELLondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.CSIRO Land and WaterUrrbraeAustralia

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