Arsenic immobilization in soil using starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles: a case study in treatment of a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil at lab scale
- 143 Downloads
The present study investigates the possible use and effectiveness of starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of arsenic in contaminated soils.
Materials and methods
For this purpose, 0.04 wt.% starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles were synthesized and tested through batch and column tests for the immobilization of arsenic in a loamy soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate (CCA).
Results and discussion
When the CCA-contaminated loamy soil was treated with 0.4 g/L of starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles (0.04 wt.%) at a soil-to-liquid ratio of 0.1, water-leachable arsenic was reduced by 92% and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachability was reduced by 98%. Column elution experiments showed that through application of starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles to CCA-contaminated soil, nearly all water-soluble arsenic was transferred to the nanoparticle phase. The TCLP leachability of arsenic remaining in the soil column was reduced by 70% due to the immobilization of arsenic by nanoparticles.
In addition to an extremely high arsenic sorption capacity, starch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles exhibited excellent mobility in the soil environment. Both the high sorption capacity and the excellent mobility in the soil environment suggest potential for application of these nanoparticles to the contaminated soil for potential in situ arsenic immobilization.
KeywordsArsenic Immobilization Soil Stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles
- Altavilla C, Ciliberto E (2011) Inorganic nanoparticles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- An B, Zhao D (2012) Immobilization of As(III) in soil and groundwater using a new class of polysaccharide stabilized Fe–Mn oxide nanoparticles. J Hazard Mater 212:332–341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.10.062
- Azcue JM, Nriagu JO (1994) Arsenic: historical perspectives. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Arsenic in the environment, part I: cycling and characterization. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, NY, pp 1–16Google Scholar
- Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (1999) Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health: chromium (total 1997) (VI 1999). In: Canadian environmental quality guidelines, 1999, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
- Ding M, Jong BHWS, Roosendaal SJ, Vredenberg A (2000) XPS studies on the electronic structure of bonding between solid and solutes: adsorption of arsenate, chromate, phosphate, Pb21, and Zn21 ions on amorphous black ferric oxyhydroxide. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64(7):1209–1219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00386-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EPA (1994) EPA-902-B-94-001: technical assistance document for complying with the TC rule and implementing the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, RCRA Outreach Program, http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/P1007NTD.PDF?Dockey=P1007NTD.PDF
- Health Canada (2014) Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality—summary table. Water and Air Quality Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, OntarioGoogle Scholar
- IPCS (2001) Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 2nd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Program on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 224; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ehc/WHO_EHC_224.pdf
- Maharjan M, Watanabe C, Aktar Ahmad SK, Ohtsuka R (2005) Short report: arsenic contamination in drinking water and skin manifestations in lowland Nepal: the first community-based survey. American Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygiene 73(2):477–479Google Scholar
- Morales-Luckie RA, Sanchez-Mendieta V, Arenas-Alatorre JA, López-Castañares R, Perez-Mazariego JL, Marquina-Fabrega V, Wayne Gómez R (2008) One-step aqueous synthesis of stoichiometric Fe–Cu nanoalloy. Material Letters 62(26):4195–4197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2008.06.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Phenrat T, Saleh N, Sirk K, Kim HJ, Tilton RD, Lowry GV (2008) Stabilization of aqueous nanoscale zerovalent iron dispersions by anionic polyelectrolytes: adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte layer properties and their effect on aggregation and sedimentation. J Nanopart Res 10(5):795–814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-007-9315-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Welch AH, Lico MS, Hughes JL (1988) Arsenic in groundwater of the western United States. Groundwater 26(3):333–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.1988.tb00397.x
- Wiesner MR, Bottero JY (2007) Environmental nanotechnology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Wu TH (1976) Soil mechanics. Allyn and Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Xu Y, Zhao D (2007) Reductive immobilization of chromate in water and soil using stabilized iron nanoparticles. Water Res 41(10):2101–2108. 10.1016/j.watres.2007.02.037