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Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1579–1589 | Cite as

Will spent mushroom substrate application affect the dissipation and plant uptake of phthalate esters?

  • Fengxiao Zhu
  • Changyin Zhu
  • Ning Chen
  • Dongmei Zhou
  • Juan Gao
Soils, Sec 3 • Remediation and Management of Contaminated or Degraded Lands • Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to investigate whether spent mushroom substrate (SMS) amendment was an appropriate way to reduce di(2-ehylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) contents in soil and whether SMS could reduce DnBP accumulation in bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis).

Materials and methods

Microcosm and pot experiments were carried out to study the influence of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate application on DnBP and DEHP dissipation in soils and plant uptake of DnBP. Variations in soil pH and enzyme activities were determined. The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in soils, bok choy, and atmosphere were examined with gas chromatography or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

Results and discussion

Adding sterilized or non-sterilized SMS can increase soil pH and urease activity, and non-sterilized SMS can promote soil laccase activity. The results show that the dissipation of DEHP is accelerated after incubation with SMS for 25 days; however, little effect can be found with continuing incubation due to low DEHP bioavailability. In this research, SMS amendment exhibits no effect on DnBP dissipation in soils and DnBP accumulation in bok choy. It was proposed that atmospheric deposition of DnBP might be the main source of DnBP in bok choy in the study, since equivalent amounts of DnBP were detected in the vegetables grown in soils with or without DnBP spiking.

Conclusions

This study indicates that the application of SMS as an organic fertilizer is less likely to affect the fate of PAEs in soils, and proper strategies should be conducted to reduce PAE levels in atmosphere to control PAE contamination in vegetables.

Keywords

Accumulation Dissipation Phthalate ester Spent mushroom substrate Vegetables 

Notes

Funding information

This research was funded by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB441105), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21377136), the Research Instrument Development Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (YZ201638), and the 135 Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fengxiao Zhu
    • 1
  • Changyin Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ning Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dongmei Zhou
    • 1
  • Juan Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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