Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1654–1667 | Cite as

Sustainable management of tropical small island ecosystems for the optimization of soil natural capital and ecosystem services: a case of a Caribbean soil ecosystem—Aripo savannas Trinidad

  • Melissa A. Atwell
  • Mark N. Wuddivira
  • Matthew Wilson
Soils, Sec 5 • Soil and Landscape Ecology • Research Article
  • 115 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The unsustainable use of soil natural capital and ecosystem services is of global concern due to damage and losses on a worldwide scale. This situation is further compounded in small island developing states (SIDS), such as the Caribbean, where rapid population growth coupled with limited land space accelerates the rate of degradation of soil natural capital. The Aripo savanna is the largest surviving natural savanna in Trinidad with economic and scientific importance. Presently, there are many different land uses and land covers competing for space to the detriment of soil ecosystem services in this savanna. An ecosystem framework approach is needed to guide the development of adaptation strategies to improve the resilience of soil ecosystem for the provisioning of services, especially in the face of climate change.

Materials and methods

We reviewed the existing literature on soil ecosystem management in SIDS with particular emphasis on Aripo savanna and attempted to provide a better understanding of soil processes by developing frameworks for assessing tropical small island soil ecosystem services and soil health.

Results and discussion

In tropical island states, poor soil quality has been associated with indiscriminant land use, creating short-term economic viability. Short-term economic viability is characterized by poor practices, negatively impacting on soil and thus limiting its ability to perform ecosystem services. To improve the resilience of a society, an ecosystem-framework approach becomes necessary. Soil ecosystem health, however, cannot be represented solely by specific land use(s)/land cover(s) (LULC) but by critical descriptors that influence soil quality.

Conclusions

This review highlights the importance of an ecosystem framework approach for the sustainable management and optimization of soil natural capital and ecosystem services in the Caribbean SIDS.

Keywords

Ecosystem services Small island developing states Soil natural capital Sustainability 

References

  1. Aide TM, Clark ML, Grau HR, López-Carr D, Levy MA, Redo D, Muñiz M (2013) Deforestation and reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001–2010). Biotropica 45:262–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alloway BJ (2004) Contamination of soils in domestic gardens and allotments: a brief overview. Land and Contam Reclam 12:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. \Altieri MA, Nicholls CI (2003) Soil fertility management and insect pests: Harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems. Soil Tillage Res 72:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashagrie Y, Zech W, Guggenberger G, Mamo T (2007) Soil aggregation, and total and particulate organic matter following conversion of native forests to continuous cultivation in Ethiopia. Soil Till Res 94:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atwell, M, Wuddivira, MN, De Caries, SA (2013) Proximal soil sensing using electromagnetic-induction for precision agriculture in the Caribbean. Trop Agri 91:187–196Google Scholar
  6. Atwell MA, Wuddivira MN, Gobin JF (2016) Abiotic water quality control on mangrove distribution in estuarine river channels assessed by a novel boat-mounted electromagnetic induction technique. Water SA 42:399–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barman D, Mandal SC, Bhattacharjee P, Ray N (2013) Land degradation: its control, management and environmental benefits of management in reference to agriculture and aquaculture. Environ Ecol 31:1095–1103Google Scholar
  8. Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouma TJ, Bryla DR (2000) On the assessment of root and soil respiration for soils of different textures: interactions with soil moisture contents and soil CO2 concentrations. Plant Soil 227:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyd J, Banzhaf S (2007) What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units. Ecol Econ 63:616–626Google Scholar
  11. Bremer DJ, Ham JM, Owensby CE, Knapp AK (1998) Responses of soil respiration to clipping and grazing in a tallgrass prairie. J Environ Qual 27:1539–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brock TD (2012) Thermophilic microorganisms and life at high temperatures, 1st edn. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. Brussaard L (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in soil. Ambio 26:563–570Google Scholar
  14. Burney JA, Davis SJ, Lobell DB (2010) Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:12052–12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cambardella CA, Elliott ET (1992) Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:777–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cerri CC, Andreux F (1990) Changes in organic carbon content of oxisols cultivated with sugar cane and pasture, based in 13C natural abundance measurement. Proc Int Congr Soil Sci 4:98–103Google Scholar
  18. Cerri CC, Feller C, Chauvel A (1991) Evoluç ão das principais propriedades de um latossolo vermelho escuro após desmatamento e cultivo por doze e cinquenta anos com cana-de-açucar Cah. ORSTOM Sér Pédol 26:37–50Google Scholar
  19. Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen Y, Day SD, Wick AF, McGuire KJ (2014) Influence of urban land development and subsequent soil rehabilitation on soil aggregates, carbon, and hydraulic conductivity. Sci Total Environ 494:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choné T, Andreux F, Correa JC, Volkoff B, Cerri CC (1991) Changes in organic matter in an oxisol from the Central Amazonian forest during eight years as pasture, determined by 13C isotopic composition, in: Diversity of environmental biogeochemistry. J Elsevier 397–405Google Scholar
  23. Clemente AS, Werner C, Maguas C, Cabral MS, Martins-Loução MA, Correia O (2004) Restoration of a limestone quarry: effect of soil amendments on the establishment of native Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrubs. Restor Ecol 12:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Craul PJ, Klein CJ (1980) Characterization of street side soils of Syracuse, New York. In: Metropolitan Tree Improv Alliance (METRIA) Proc 3:88–101Google Scholar
  25. Darwish T, Khater C, Jomaa I, Stehouwer R, Shaban A, Hamzé M (2011) Environmental impact of quarries on natural resources in Lebanon. Land Degrad Dev 22:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Day SD, Bassuk NL (1994) A review of the effects of soil compaction and amelioration treatments on landscape trees. J Arboric 20:9–17Google Scholar
  27. de Moraes JF, Volkoff BCCC, Cerri CC, & Bernoux, M. (1996). Soil properties under Amazon forest and changes due to pasture installation in Rondônia, Brazil. Geoderma, 70(1), 63–81Google Scholar
  28. Dietz ME, Clausen JC (2006) Saturation to improve pollutant retention in a rain garden. Environ Sci Technol l40:1335–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diez JA, Polo A, Cerri CC, Andreux F (1991a) Influencia do pousio e da pastagem sobre a dinâmica de nutrientes em oxissolos recentemente desflorestados na Amazônia Oriental. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileria 26:77–83Google Scholar
  30. Diez JA, Polo A, Cerri CC, Andreux F (1991b) Efectos comparativos em cultivos intensivos sobre nutrimentos em oxisoles desforestados. (No. HEM). En: Turrialba 41:150–159Google Scholar
  31. Dirzo R, Raven PH (2003) Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu Rev Environ Resources 28:137–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dominati E, Patterson M, Mackay A (2010) A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecol Econ 69:1858–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dumanski J, Eswaran H, Pushparajah E, Smyth A (eds) (1991) Evaluation for sustainable land management in the developing world. Towards the development of an international framework. IBSRAM Proc Bangkok Thailand 1:12Google Scholar
  34. Ehrlich PR, Wilson EO (1991) Biodiversity studies: science and policy. Science 253:758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elliott ET (1986) Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Environmental Management Authority (EMA) (2007) Aripo Savannas Environmentally Sensitive Area Literature Review to Facilitate thePreparation of Management Plans. Prepared by the Caribbean Natural Resource Institute (CANARI)Google Scholar
  37. Ezeaku PI (2012) Evaluating the influence of open cast mining of solid minerals on soil, land use and livelihood system in selected areas of Nasarawa state, north- central, Nigeria. J Ecol Nat Environ 4:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. FAO (2014) Natural resources management and the environment in small island developing statesGoogle Scholar
  39. Franzluebbers AJ, Hons FM, Zuberer DA (1995) Tillage and crop effects on seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 evolution, water content, temperature, and bulk density. Appl Soil Ecol 2:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frelich LE, Hale CM, Scheu S, Holdsworth AR, Heneghan L, Bohlen PJ, Reich PB (2006) Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biol Invasions 8:1235–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guo LB, Gifford RM (2002) Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Glob Change Biol 8:345–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hansen AJ, Knight RL, Marzluff JM, Powell S, Brown K, Gude PH, Jones K (2005) Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecol Appl 15:893–1905Google Scholar
  43. Harmsen K, Kelly T (1992) Natural resource management research for sustainable production. Draft reportfor the joint TAC/CDC working group on ecoregional approaches to international research (unpublished)Google Scholar
  44. Harper CW, Blair JM, Fay PA, Knapp AK, Carlisle JD (2005) Increased rainfall variability and reduced rainfall amount decreases soil CO2 flux in a grassland ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 11:322–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harrington LM (2016) Sustainability theory and conceptual considerations: a review of key ideas for sustainability, and the rural context. Papers Appl Geogr 2(4):365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heneghan L, Miller SP, Baer S, Callaham MA, Montgomery J, Pavao-Zuckerman M, Rhoades CC, Richardson S (2008) Integrating soil ecological knowledge into restoration management. Restor Ecol 16:608–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Houghton RA (1990) The global effects of tropical deforestation. Environ Sci Technol 24:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Houghton RA, Hobbie JE, Melillo JM, Moore B, Peterson BJ, Shaver GR, Woodwell GM (1983) Changes in carbon content of terrestrial biota and soils between 1860 and 1980: A net release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Ecol Monogr 53:235–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Imeson AC, Prinsen HAM (2004) Vegetation patterns as biological indicators for identifying runoff and sediment source and sink areas for semi-arid landscapes in Spain. Agricultural ecosystem and Environment 104:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson DW, Curtis PS (2001) Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: meta analysis. Forest Ecol Manag 140:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson NC, Wedin DA (1997) Soil carbon, nutrients, and Mycorrhizae during conversion of dry tropical forest to grassland. Ecol Appl 7:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jung WK, Kitchen NR, Sudduth KA, Anderson SH (2006) Spatial characteristics of claypan soil properties in an agricultural field. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1387–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edn. CRC press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  54. Lal R (1993) Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality, and sustainability. Soil Till Res 27:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lambin EF (1997) Modelling and monitoring land cover change processes in tropical regions. Prog Phys Geog 21:375–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Le Quéré C, Raupach MR, Canadell JG, Marland G, Bopp L, Ciais P, ... & Friedlingstein P (2009) Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience 2: 831-836Google Scholar
  57. Lejeune O, Tlidi M, Couteron P (2002) Localized vegetation patches: a self-organized response to resource scarcity. Phys Rev E 66:010901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lerch RN, Kitchen NR, Kremer RJ, Donald WW, Alberts EE, Sadler EJ, Ghidey F (2005) Development of a conservation-oriented precision agriculture system: water and soil quality assessment. J Soil and Water Conserv 60:411–421Google Scholar
  59. Liu SL, Fu BJ, Lü YH, Chen LD (2002) Effects of reforestation and deforestation on soil properties in humid mountainous areas: a case study in Wolong nature reserve, Sichuan province, China. Soil Use Manage 18:376–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P (2002) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: synthesis and perspectives, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  61. Martins PFS, Cerri CC, Volkoff B, Andreux F, Chauvel A (1991) Consequences of clearing and tillage on the soil of a natural Amazonian ecosystem. Forest Ecol Manag 38:173–182Google Scholar
  62. Matson PA, Parton WJ, Power AG, Swift MJ (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller FP, Wali MK (1995) Soils land use and sustainable agriculture: a review. Can J Soil Sci 75:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moreno-Peñaranda R, Lloret F, Alcaniz JM (2004) Effects of sewage sludge on plant community composition in restored limestone quarries. Restor Ecol 12:290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ogle SM, Breidt FJ, Paustian K (2005) Agricultural management impacts on soil organic carbon storage under moist and dry climatic conditions of temperate and tropical regions. Biogeochem 72:87–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ostrom E (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325:419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pandit MK, Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Bhaskar A, Brook BW (2007) Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodivers Conserv 16:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pelling M, Uitto JI (2001) Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change. Global Environ Change Part B: Environ Hazard 3(2):49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pimentel D, Harvey C, Resosudarmo P, Sinclair K, Kurz D, McNair M, Crist S, Shpritz L, Fitton L, Saffouri R, Blair R (1995) Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Sci-AAAS-Weekly Paper Ed 267:1117–1122Google Scholar
  70. Pouyat RV, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis ID, Groffman PM, Schwarz K (2010) Chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of urban soils. Urban Ecosystem Ecology:119–152Google Scholar
  71. Raciti SM, Groffman PM, Fahey TJ (2008) Nitrogen retention in urban lawns and forests. Ecol Appl 18:1615–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Raciti SM, Groffman PM, Jenkins JC, Pouyat RV, Fahey TJ, Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (2011) Accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in residential soils with different land-use histories. Ecosystems 14:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ramsay WJH (1986) Bulk soil handling for quarry restoration. Soil Use Manage 2:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Richardson WD (1963) Observations on the vegetation and ecology of the Aripo Savannas, Trinidad. J Ecol 1:295–313Google Scholar
  75. Rietz DN, Haynes RJ (2003) Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ritter KS, Sibley P, Hall K, Keen P, Mattu G, Linton BL (2002) Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry. J Toxic Environ Health Part A 65:1–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robinson DA, Lebron I, Vereecken H (2009) On the definition of the natural capital of soils: a framework for description, evaluation, and monitoring. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:1904–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ross SM (1993) Organic matter in tropical soils: current conditions, concerns and prospects for conservation. Progress Phys Geo 17:265–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sarmiento G, Pinillos M, da Silva MP, Acevedo D (2004) Effects of soil water regime and grazing on vegetation diversity and production in a hyperseasonal savanna in the Apure Llanos, Venezuela. J Trop Ecol 20:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scharenbroch BC, Lloyd JE, Johnson-Maynard JL (2005) Distinguishing urban soils with physical, chemical, and biological properties. Pedobiologia 49:283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Scheffer M, Westley F, Brock W (2003) Slow response of societies to new problems: causes and costs. Ecosystems 6:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schlesinger WH, Reynolds JF, Cunningham GL, Huenneke LF, Jarrell WM, Virginia RA, Whitford WG (1990) Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science 247:1043–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schwartz RC, Evett SR, Unger PW (2003) Soil hydraulic properties of cropland compared with reestablished and native grassland. Geoderma 116:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Short JR, Fanning DS, McIntosh MS, Foss JE, Patterson JC (1986) Soils of the mall in Washington, DC: I. Statistical summary of properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Six JΑΕΤ, Elliott ET, Paustian K (2000) Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biol Biochem 32:2099–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skoop J, Jawson MD, Doran JW (1990) Steady-state aerobic microbial activity as a function of soil-water content. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1619–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sort X, Alcaniz J (1996) Contribution of sewage sludge to erosion control in the rehabilitation of limestone quarries. Land Degrad Dev 7:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Steichen JM (1984) Infiltration and random roughness of a tilled and untilled claypan soil. Soil Till Res 4:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tan KH (2010) Principles of soil chemistry, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  90. Thornton I (1991) Metal contamination of soils in urban areas. In: Bullock P, Gregory PJ (eds) Soils in the Urban Environment. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 47–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort BL (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:20260–20264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Townsend-Small A, Czimczik CI (2010) Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf. Geophys Res Lett 37:2Google Scholar
  94. Udawatta RP, Motavalli PP, Garrett HE (2004) Phosphorus loss and runoff characteristics in three adjacent agricultural watersheds with claypan soils. J Environ Qual 33:1709–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Van Epps HL (2006) René Dubos: unearthing antibiotics. J Exp Med 203:259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Veldkamp E (1994) Organic carbon turnover in three tropical soils under pasture after deforestation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Visser S, Fujikawa J, Griffiths CL, Parkinson D (1984) Effect of topsoil storage on microbial activity, primary production and decomposition potential. Plant Soil 82:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ward AD, Hatfield JL, Lamb JA, Alberts EE, Logan TJ, Anderson JL (1994) The management systems evaluation areas program: tillage and water quality research. Soil Till Res 30:49–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Willett CD, Lerch RN, Schultz RC, Berges SA, Peacher RD, Isenhart TM (2012) Streambank erosion in two watersheds of the Central Claypan Region of Missouri. U S J Soil Water Conserv 67:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Woltemade CJ (2010) Impact of residential soil disturbance on infiltration rate and stormwater runoff. JAWRA 46:700–711Google Scholar
  102. Wong JWC, Chen Q, Zhang FS, Wong MH, Baker, AJM (1999a) Phytostabilization of mimicked cadmium contaminated soil with lime amendment. Proc Intl conf biogeochem trace elements 898–899Google Scholar
  103. Wong MH, Lan CY, Gao L, Chen HM (1999b) Current approaches to managing and remediating metal contaminated soils in China. In: Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Biogeochem. Trace Elements, Vienna, Austria, July 1999Google Scholar
  104. Wong CSC, Li X, Thornton I (2006) Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals. Environ Pollut 142:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wuddivira MN, Atwell M (2012) Appropriate soil conservation practices for hillside food production in the Caribbean. In: Ganpat WG, Isaac WP (eds), Sustainable food production practices in the Caribbean, 1st edn. Ian Randle publishers, KingstonGoogle Scholar
  106. Wuddivira MN, Camps-Roach G (2007) Effects of organic matter and calcium on soil structural stability. Eur J Soil Sci 58:722–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Young IM, Blanchart E, Chenu C, Dangerfield M, Fragoso C, Grimaldi M, Ingram J, Monrozier LJ (1998) The interaction of soil biota and soil structure under global change. Glob Change Biol 4:703–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yuan JG, Fang W, Fan L, Chen Y, Wang DQ, Yang ZY (2006) Soil formation and vegetation establishment on the cliff face of abandoned quarries in the early stages of natural colonization. Restor Ecol 14:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS, Holmes WE (2000) Elevated atmospheric CO2, fine roots and the response of soil microorganisms: a review and hypothesis. New Phytol 147:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang H, Chu LM (2011) Plant community structure, soil properties and microbial characteristics in revegetated quarries. Ecol Eng 37:1104–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhu K, Zhang L, Hart W, Liu M, Chen H (2004) Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semi-arid loess plateau of northern China. J Arid Environ 57:487–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Faculty of Food and AgricultureUniversity of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago
  2. 2.Department of Food Production, Faculty of Food and AgricultureUniversity of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago
  3. 3.College of Science, Geospatial Research InstituteUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations