Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1632–1640 | Cite as

Long-term nitrogen fertilization impacts soil fungal and bacterial community structures in a dryland soil of Loess Plateau in China

  • Jinshan Liu
  • Xiang Zhang
  • Hui Wang
  • Xiaoli Hui
  • Zhaohui Wang
  • Weihong Qiu
Soils, Sec 5 • Soil and Landscape Ecology • Short Original Communication

Abstract

Purpose

Nitrogen (N) fertilization is a key factor that affects soil biogeochemical properties and microbial community structures across ecosystems. However, we know less about the responses of soil microbial community dynamics and biogeochemical properties to long-term N fertilization practices in a loess dryland soil in Northwest China.

Materials and methods

We sampled dryland soils at the 0–20-cm soil layer from a long-term field experiment (initiated in 2004) conducted in Northwest China, which has three treatments (i.e., N0 (control), N160 (160 kg N ha−1 year−1), and N320 (320 kg N ha−1 year−1). We determined soil biogeochemical properties and used 454 pyrosequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (for fungi) and V1–V3 regions of 16S rRNA (for bacteria) genes to explore soil microbial communities.

Results and discussion

Increased concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (TN), nitrate N and microbial biomass N, and decreased soil pH were found in N-fertilized treatments and probably due to N fertilizer additions. However, N fertilization had no significant effect on soil microbial biomass C, available phosphorus, available potassium, and electrical conductivity. N fertilization did not affect the fungal species number, but it decreased the abundance of phylum Zygomycota and increased genus Fusarium. The predominant bacterial phyla in N0 were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria, but in N160 and N320 were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. At the bacterial genus level, N fertilization decreased the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium and increased other genera (e.g., Bacillus, Lactococcus, Rhodoplanes, Steroidobacter). However, there was no difference in community structure between N160 and N320. The bacterial community structure had close correlation to soil properties SOC, TN, and pH, while no correlations were observed between fungal community structure and these soil properties, which indicated that soil bacterial community structure was easily changed by soil properties as affected by N fertilization.

Conclusions

N fertilization changed soil biogeochemical properties and thereby altered soil fungal community compositions and bacterial community structure, but it did not impact the fungal diversity. These results demonstrated that a reasonable rate of N fertilizer applied to wheat field can improve soil fertility and microbial communities.

Keywords

Community composition Dryland soil Gene pyrosequencing N fertilization Soil microbial biomass 

Notes

Funding information

This research was supported jointly by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41501308), Science and Technology Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (2017JM4020), Chinese National Key Basic Research Special Funds (2015CB150404, 2015BAD23B04), and Chinese Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (201303104, 201503124).

Supplementary material

11368_2017_1862_MOESM1_ESM.docx (365 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 365 kb)

References

  1. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez R (2005) A review of nitrogen fertilizer and conservation tillage effects on soil organic carbon storage. Soil Use Manage 21:38–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao SD (2000) Physical and chemical analysis of soils (in Chinese). China Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Berthrong ST, Yeager CM, Gallegos-Graves L, Steven B, Eichorst SA, Jackson RB, Kuske CR (2014) Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:3103–3112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bittman S, Forge T, Kowalenko C (2005) Responses of the bacterial and fungal biomass in a grassland soil to multi-year applications of dairy manure slurry and fertilizer. Soil Biol Biochem 37:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowles TM, Acosta-Martínez V, Calderón F, Jackson LE (2014) Soil enzyme activities, microbial communities, and carbon and nitrogen availability in organic agroecosystems across an intensively-managed agricultural landscape. Soil Biol Biochem 68:252–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-total. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, pp 595–624Google Scholar
  8. Brookes PC, Kragt JF, Powlson DS, Jenkinson DS (1985) Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: the effects of fumigation time and temperature. Soil Biol Biochem 17:831–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caporaso JG et al (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Meth 7:335–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cederlund H, Wessén E, Enwall K, Jones CM, Juhanson J, Pell M, Philippot L, Hallin S (2014) Soil carbon quality and nitrogen fertilization structure bacterial communities with predictable responses of major bacterial phyla. Appl Soil Ecol 84:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Y, Xin L, Liu J, Yuan M, Liu S, Jiang W, Chen J, Chen Y, Xin L, Liu J (2017) Changes in bacterial community of soil induced by long-term straw returning. Sci Agr 74:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chu H, Lin X, Fujii T, Morimoto S, Yagi K, Hu J, Zhang J (2007) Soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity, bacterial community structure in response to long-term fertilizer management. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2971–2976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coolon JD, Jones KL, Todd TC, Blair JM, Herman MA (2013) Long-term nitrogen amendment alters the diversity and assemblage of soil bacterial communities in tallgrass prairie. PLoS One 8:e67884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooperative Research Group on Chinese Soil Taxonomy (2001) Chinese soil taxonomy. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui J, Wang J, Xu J, Xu C, Xu X (2017) Changes in soil bacterial communities in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in east China following 4 years of nitrogen addition. J Soils Sediments 17:2156–2164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dai J, Wang Z, Li F, He G, Wang S, Li Q, Cao H, Luo L, Zan Y, Meng X, Zhang W, Wang R, Malhi SS (2015) Optimizing nitrogen input by balancing winter wheat yield and residual nitrate-N in soil in a long-term dryland field experiment in the Loess Plateau of China. Field Crops Res 181:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dang A, Li S, Wang G, Shao M (2007) Distribution characteristics of soil total nitrogen and soil microbial biomass nitrogen for the typical types of soils on the Loess Plateau. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 13:1020–1027 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. DeSantis TZ, Hugenholtz P, Larsen N, Rojas M, Brodie EL, Keller K, Huber T, Dalevi D, Hu P, Andersen GL (2006) Greengenes, a chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbench compatible with ARB. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5069–5072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dong WY, Zhang XY, Dai XQ, Fu XL, Yang FT, Liu XY, Sun XM, Wen XF, Schaeffer S (2014) Changes in soil microbial community composition in response to fertilization of paddy soils in subtropical China. Appl Soil Ecol 84:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Edgar RC (2010) Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics 26:2460–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edgar RC, Haas BJ, Clemente JC, Quince C, Knight R (2011) UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics 27:2194–2200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fan TL, Stewart B, Wang Y, Luo JJ, Zhou GY (2005) Long-term fertilization effects on grain yield, water-use efficiency and soil fertility in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 106:313–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fan TL, Xu MG, Song SY, Zhou GY, Ding LP (2008) Trends in grain yields and soil organic C in a long-term fertilization experiment in the China Loess Plateau. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:448–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gao SJ, Zhang RG, Cao WD, Fan YY, Gao JS, Huang J, Bai JS, Zeng NH, Chang DN, Katsu-yoshi S, Thorup-Kristensen K (2015) Long-term rice-rice-green manure rotation changing the microbial communities in typical red paddy soil in South China. J Integr Agr 14:2512–2520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gong ZT, Zhang GL, Luo GB (1999) Diversity of anthrosols in China. Pedosphere 9:193–204Google Scholar
  26. Guo JH, Liu XJ, Zhang Y, Shen JL, Han WX, Zhang WF, Christie P, Goulding KWT, Vitousek PM, Zhang FS (2010) Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Science 327:1008–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koljalg U, Nilsson RH, Abarenkov K, Tedersoo L, Taylor AF, Bahram M, Bates ST, Bruns TD, Bengtsson-Palme J, Callaghan TM (2013) Towards a unified paradigm for sequence-based identification of fungi. Mol Ecol 22:5271–5277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koyama A, Wallenstein MD, Simpson RT, Moore JC (2014) Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils. Front Microbiol 5:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lauber CL, Hamady M, Knight R, Fierer N (2009) Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil pH as a predictor of soil bacterial community structure at the continental scale. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:5111–5120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li F, Chen L, Zhang J, Yin J, Huang S (2017) Bacterial community structure after long-term organic and inorganic fertilization reveals important associations between soil nutrients and specific taxa involved in nutrient transformations. Front Microbiol 8:187–198Google Scholar
  31. Liu JJ, Sui YY, Yu ZH, Shi Y, Chu HY, Jin J, Liu XB, Wang GH (2014) High throughput sequencing analysis of biogeographical distribution of bacterial communities in the black soils of northeast China. Soil Biol Biochem 70:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manna MC, Swarup A, Wanjari RH, Ravankar HN, Mishra B, Saha MN, Singh YV, Sahi DK, Sarap PA (2005) Long-term effect of fertilizer and manure application on soil organic carbon storage, soil quality and yield sustainability under sub-humid and semi-arid tropical India. Field Crops Res 93:264–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mello A, Napoli C, Murat C, Morin E, Marceddu G, Bonfante P (2011) ITS-1 versus ITS-2 pyrosequencing: a comparison of fungal populations in truffle grounds. Mycologia 103:1184–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy monograph. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  35. Oksanen J, Blanchet F, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin P, O'Hara R, Simpson G, Solymos P, Stevens M, Wagner H (2016) Vegan: Community ecology package: ordination, diversity and dissimilarities, version 2.3–5. https://cran.r-project.org
  36. Olsen SR, Watanabe FS (1957) A method to determine a phosphorus adsorption maximum of soils as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Soil Sci Soc Am J 21:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) (1982) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, 2nd edn. ASA and SSSA, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  38. Pan Y, Cassman N, de Hollander M, Mendes LW, Korevaar H, Geerts RH, van Veen JA, Kuramae EE (2014) Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 90:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paungfoo-Lonhienne C, Yeoh YK, Kasinadhuni NR, Lonhienne TG, Robinson N, Hugenholtz P, Ragan MA, Schmidt S (2015) Nitrogen fertilizer dose alters fungal communities in sugarcane soil and rhizosphere. Sci Rep 5:8678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  41. Sainju UM, Senwo ZN, Nyakatawa EZ, Tazisong IA, Reddy KC (2008) Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration as affected by long-term tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer sources. Agric Ecosyst Environ 127:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarathchandra S, Ghani A, Yeates G, Burch G, Cox N (2001) Effect of nitrogen and phosphate fertilisers on microbial and nematode diversity in pasture soils. Soil Biol Biochem 33:953–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ (2009) Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7537–7541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shen JP, Zhang LM, Guo JF, Ray JL, He JZ (2010) Impact of long-term fertilization practices on the abundance and composition of soil bacterial communities in Northeast China. Appl Soil Ecol 46:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shen C, Xiong J, Zhang H, Feng Y, Lin X, Li X, Liang W, Chu H (2013) Soil pH drives the spatial distribution of bacterial communities along elevation on Changbai Mountain. Soil Biol Biochem 57:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shi P, Wang S, Jia S, Gao Q (2015) Effect of 25-year fertilization on soil microbial biomass and community structure in a continuous corn cropping system. Arch Agron Soil Sci 61:1303–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Su JQ, Ding LJ, Xue K, Yao HY, Quensen J, Bai SJ, Wei WX, Wu JS, Zhou J, Tiedje JM, Zhu YG (2015) Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil. Mol Ecol 24:136–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas RQ, Brookshire E, Gerber S (2015) Nitrogen limitation on land: how can it occur in Earth system models? Glob Chang Biol 21:1777–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987) An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem 19:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang N, Wang S, Gao Q, Zhao L, Tian T, Zhang J (2014a) Effect of nitrogen application levels on microbiological characteristics of soils with different fertility basics. J Soil Water Conserv 28:148–152 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  52. Wang Q, Wang Y, Wang S, He T, Liu L (2014b) Fresh carbon and nitrogen inputs alter organic carbon mineralization and microbial community in forest deep soil layers. Soil Biol Biochem 72:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wei X, Hao M, Xue X, Shi P, Horton R, Wang A, Zang Y (2010) Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization. Biogeosciences 7:3301–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu JS, Joergensen RG, Pommerening B, Chaussod R, Brookes PC (1990) Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation-extraction—an automated procedure. Soil Biol Biochem 22:1167–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wu T, Schoenau JJ, Li F, Qian P, Malhi SS, Shi Y, Xu F (2004) Influence of cultivation and fertilization on total organic carbon and carbon fractions in soils from the Loess Plateau of China. Soil Till Res 77:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Xiao X, Zhu W, Xiao L, Deng YP, Zhao YW, Wang JF (2013) Suitable water and nitrogen treatment improves soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and enzyme activities of paddy field. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 29:91–98 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  57. Yang XY, Ren WD, Sun BH, Zhang SL (2012) Effects of contrasting soil management regimes on total and labile soil organic carbon fractions in a loess soil in China. Geoderma 177:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yuan HZ, Ge T, Zhou P, Liu SL, Roberts P, Zhu HH, Zou ZY, Tong CL, Wu JS (2013) Soil microbial biomass and bacterial and fungal community structures responses to long-term fertilization in paddy soils. J Soils Sediments 13:877–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zang YF, Hao MD, Zhang LQ, Zhang HQ (2015) Effects of wheat cultivation and fertilization on soil microbial biomass carbon, soil microbial biomass nitrogen and soil basal respiration in 26 years. Acta Ecol Sin 35:1–10 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  60. Zhang HJ, Ding WX, He XH, Yu HY, Fan JL, Liu DY (2014) Influence of 20–year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil. PLoS One 9:e92733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhao J, Ni T, Li Y, Xiong W, Ran W, Shen B, Shen Q, Zhang R (2014) Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times. PLoS One 9:e85301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhao HB, Wang ZH, Gao YJ, Zhang WF (2016) Investigation and evaluation of household wheat fertilizer application in Shaanxi Province. J Plant Nutr Fert 22:245–253 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  63. Zhong Y, Yan WM, Shangguan ZP (2015) Impact of long-term N additions upon coupling between soil microbial community structure and activity, and nutrient-use efficiencies. Soil Biol Biochem 91:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhou J, Guan DW, Zhou BK, Zhao BS, Ma MC, Qin J, Jiang X, Chen SF, Cao FM, Shen DL, Li J (2015) Influence of 34-years of fertilization on bacterial communities in an intensively cultivated black soil in northeast China. Soil Biol Biochem 90:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhu Z, Chen D (2002) Nitrogen fertilizer use in China–contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinshan Liu
    • 1
  • Xiang Zhang
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoli Hui
    • 1
  • Zhaohui Wang
    • 1
  • Weihong Qiu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture/College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

Personalised recommendations