Combined bioremediation of soil co-contaminated with cadmium and endosulfan by Pleurotus eryngii and Coprinus comatus
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The subjects of this study were to investigate the remediating potential of the co-cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii and Coprinus comatus on soil that is co-contaminated with heavy metal (cadmium (Cd)) and organic pollutant (endosulfan), and the effects of the co-cultivated mushrooms on soil biochemical indicators, such as laccase enzyme activity and bacterial counts.
Materials and methods
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the combined bioremediation effects on co-contaminated soil. After the mature fruiting bodies were harvested from each pot, the biomass of mushrooms was recorded. In addition, bacterial counts and laccase enzyme activity in soil were determined. The content of Cd in mushrooms and soil was detected by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), and the variations of Cd fractions in soil were determined following the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. Besides, the residual endosulfan in soil was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results and discussion
The results indicated that co-cultivation of P. eryngii and C. comatus exerted the best remediation effect on the co-contaminated soil. The biomass of mushroom in the co-cultivated group (T group) was 1.57–13.20 and 19.75–56.64% higher than the group individually cultivated with P. eryngii (P group) or C. comatus (C group), respectively. The concentrations of Cd in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were 1.83–3.06, 1.04–2.28, and 0.67–2.60 mg/kg in T, P, and C groups, respectively. Besides, the removal rates of endosulfan in all treatments exceeded 87%. The best bioremediation effect in T group might be caused by the mutual promotion of these two kinds of mushrooms.
The biomass of mushroom, laccase activity, bacterial counts, and Cd content in mushrooms were significantly enhanced, and the dissipation effect of endosulfan was slightly higher in the co-cultivated group than in the individually cultivated groups. In this study, the effect of co-cultivated macro fungi P. eryngii and C. comatus on the remediation of Cd and endosulfan co-contaminated soil was firstly reported, and the results are important for a better understanding of the co-remediation for co-contaminated soil.
KeywordsCadmium Combined bioremediation Coprinus comatus Endosulfan Pleurotus eryngii
This study was financially supported by the NSFC (No. 41171253, No. J1103518) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA06A210). The authors wish to thank Professor Guanglei Cheng and Dong Yu from Sichuan University for their technical assistance.
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