Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of iprovalicarb + propineb fungicide in tomato under different agroclimates


Multi-location supervised field trials in India were conducted with a combination pesticide formulation (iprovalicarb 5.5% + propineb 61.25%, 66.75% WP) in tomato to study dissipation behavior at single (iprovalicarb 137.5 g a.i. ha−1 + propineb 1531.25 g a.i. ha−1) and double (iprovalicarb 275 g a.i. ha−1 + propineb 3062.5 g a.i. ha−1) dose. The samples were processed using a modified QuEChERS method for iprovalicarb and acid hydrolysis followed by carbon disulfide estimation for propineb and confirmation of their respective residues by LC–MS/MS and GC–MS. Both the fungicides in tomato fruits obey first-order kinetics irrespective of location and doses. Half-life (t1/2) values at all the four locations ranged from 1.08 to 4.67 days for iprovalicarb and 3.36 to 11.41 days for propineb in tomato. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has set MRL of 1 mg kg−1 for propineb, but no MRL is yet fixed for iprovalicarb. Using OECD MRL calculator, the calculated MRL for iprovalicarb and propineb was found to be 2 and 4 mg kg−1, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) < acceptable daily intake (ADI), TMDI < maximum permissible intake (MPI), percent acute hazard index (% aHI) ≤ 1, and percent chronic hazard index (% cHI) < 1 for both the fungicides indicated that the combination formulation will not pose any dietary risk and thus considered safe for human health.

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Data Availability

The basic data is available in the archives of the ICAR–All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues (AINP–PR), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.


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Authors are thankful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India (F.No. CS.8/2/2017-IA-III), for providing necessary infrastructure and facilities for conducting the study and M/s Bayer Crop Science Limited, Mumbai, India (ST No. 107), for sponsoring multi-location supervised field trials.

Author information




Conceptualization, funding acquisition, investigation, project administration, resources, visualization, supervision: Dr. Krishan Kumar Sharma and Dr. Vandana Tripathy

Review and editing: Dr Suresh Walia

Writing—original draft preparation: Dr. Khushbu Sharma, Dr. Rajbir Yadav, and Dr. Ruchi Gupta

Project administration, formal analysis, and investigation (KAU–Center): Dr. Thomas George

Project administration, formal analysis, and investigation (MPKV–Center): Dr. Chidanand Shiveshankar Patil and Yogesh Subhash Saindane

Project administration, formal analysis, and Investigation (IIHR–Center): Dr. Soudamini Mohapatra and Lekha Siddamallaiah

Project administration, formal analysis, and investigation (SKNAU–Center): Dr. Abdul Rashid Khan Pathan and Dr. Amit Kumar Yadav

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Krishan Kumar Sharma.

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The study does not require approval of the Institute’s Ethical Committee.

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The work has been conducted under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, and prior consent of all the participating authors has been obtained.

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The author vouches that the work has not been published elsewhere completely, in part, or in any other form, and that the manuscript has not been submitted to another journal.

Disclosure statement

The field trials complied with national and international guidelines and the authors have no competing financial interest. Pesticide risk assessment, food safety, and field trials are the mandate of the project, and necessary approval for the same has been accorded by the competent authority.

Conflict of interest

Krishan Kumar Sharma is a network coordinator. The rest of the authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Tripathy, V., Sharma, K.K., George, T. et al. Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of iprovalicarb + propineb fungicide in tomato under different agroclimates. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12919-5

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  • Iprovalicarb
  • Propineb
  • Residue
  • Tomato
  • Consumer risk assessment
  • OECD MRL calculator