A novel covalent triazine framework developed for efficient determination of 1-naphthol in water

Abstract

Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) are an exciting new class of porous organic materials with excellent chemical stability and easy functionalization. In recent years, CTFs have gained increasing attention in electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Herein, a novel CTF material was successfully synthesized by the solvothermal condensation of 1,3,5-tris-(4-aminophenyl)triazine (TAPT) and 2,3,6,7-tetrabromonapthalene dianhydride (TBNDA) for determination of 1-naphthol in water. The obtained CTF, denoted here as TATB, comprised uniformly sized spherical particles (diameter 0.5–2 μm) with a highly conjugated structure that benefited electron transfer processes when applied to a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A TATB/GCE working electrode showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of 1-naphthol, with the oxidation peak current being directly proportional to the 1-naphthol concentration in the range of 0.01–10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 5.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the TATB/GCE sensor possesses excellent reproducibility, sensitivity, and selectivity for 1-naphthol determination in aqueous solution. This work highlights the potential of CTFs in electrochemical sensing, whilst also demonstrating a sensitive and stable sensor platform for 1-naphthol detection in water.

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Funding

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Plan (No. 2016YFB0302400), National Natural Science Foundation of China, 42077127, Shandong Provincial “Double-Hundred Talent Plan” on 100 Foreign Experts, and the MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology.

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Yang LL performed the experiments, analyzed the spectra, and wrote the manuscript. Gong RZ guided the synthesis of CTF. Waterhouse GIN polished the manuscript. Dong J guided the electrochemical analysis. Xu J supervised the research and provided the funding support. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Jing Dong or Jing Xu.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Jing Xu and Jing Dong are co-corresponding authors.

Responsible Editor: Santiago V. Luis

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Yang, L., Gong, R., Waterhouse, G.I.N. et al. A novel covalent triazine framework developed for efficient determination of 1-naphthol in water. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12869-y

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Keywords

  • Covalent triazine frameworks
  • π-π stacking
  • Electrochemical detection
  • 1-naphthol
  • Abundant active sites
  • Water contamination