The photo-Fenton process was performed with four radiation settings to treat clinical analysis laboratory wastewater (CALWW) from a hospital, with the aim of evaluating its treatability and acute toxicity response in Daphnia magna and Lactuca sativa. The experiments were performed in a borosilicate bench-scale conventional reactor for 320 min. The light radiation was suspended 13 cm from the CALWW surface for mild radiation or immersed into the matrix for intense radiation. All photo-Fenton experimental conditions were set at pH 3.0, 15 mg L-1 of Fe2+, and initial H2O2 of 300 mg L-1. The initial Fe2+ concentration was converted to Fe3+ ion in the first 15 min of photooxidation for all processes. Furthermore, the intense radiation processes regenerated Fe2+ faster than other systems. Neither mild UVA-Vis nor mild UVC-Vis radiation significantly treated the organic matter or phenols. However, mild UVC-Vis resulted in a higher biodegradability transformation rate (biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand 0.51), indicating that it could treat more recalcitrant organic matter than mild UVA-Vis. Intense radiation proved to be more efficient, with a chemical oxygen demand removal rate of 95% for intense UVA-Vis and 99% for intense UVC-Vis treatments. All treatments reduced acute toxicity in D. magna. Moreover, photo-Fenton treatment by intense UVA-Vis decreased toxicity ~98%, compared to mild and intense UVC-Vis, ~75%. Both of the mild radiation treatments inhibited the germination of L. sativa seeds. The intense UVA-Vis photo-Fenton treatment was the only setting that removed phytotoxicity, resulting in a non-significant effect, and the intense UVC-Vis treatment inhibited the seed growth.
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We are also grateful to the multiuser laboratory of chemical analyses (LAMAQ-UTFPR), the multiuser laboratory of equipment and environmental analyses (LAMEAA-UTFPR).
The authors greatly acknowledge scholarship supported by The Federal University of Technology-Paraná and the Brazilian funding agencies: Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological (CNPq-Protocol number 458362/2014-0), and Fundação Araucária.
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Sá, R.D., Rodríguez-Pérez, A.P., Rodrigues-Silva, F. et al. Treatment of a clinical analysis laboratory wastewater from a hospital by photo-Fenton process at four radiation settings and toxicity response. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12860-7
- Mild radiation
- Intense radiation
- Daphnia magna
- Lactuca sativa