Assessment of different ventilation strategies on ventilation performance in immersed tunnels


Investigations of ventilation in an immersed tunnel have recently drawn greater research attentions; however, analyses on the influence of vent design and tunnel width on ventilation performance have rarely been addressed. For the sake of the security of evacuees in an immersed tunnel fire, the influence of three vent designs and two immersed tunnel widths on mechanical ventilation performance during tunnel fires were numerically investigated using large eddy simulation. The pollutant gas flow characteristics in the tunnel after a fire were analyzed, and the pollutant gas exhaust efficiency based on the mass conservation of carbon monoxide in the smoke was proposed in this study. By comparing the smoke propagation, smoke distribution, and exhaust efficiency between three different vent designs, it was determined that the Top Vent Design has the best smoke exhaust effect, and the Sidewall Vent Design (with an activated vertical smoke screen) has a better smoke exhaust effect than the Sidewall Vent Design. The influences of the tunnel width and heat release rate of the fire on the ventilation effect were also investigated.

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Data availability

The datasets used or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51974361 and 52008068), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province of China (No. 2020JJ3046), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Central South University (Grant Nos. 502501004 and 502045009), Emei to Hanyuan Expressway Engineering Research Project (Grant No. LH-HT-45), and General Fund of Chongqing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. cstc2020jcyj-msxm3094 and cstc2019jcyj-msxmX0600).

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Conceptualization: L. J. Li and C. G. Fan; methodology: Q. Z. Qiu, P. Xu and X.F. Zhang; formal analysis and investigation: Q. Z. Qiu, and Y. L. Li; writing—original draft preparation: J. L. Liu; writing—review and editing: Y. L. Li, J. L. Liu; resources and supervision: C. G. Fan

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Correspondence to Chuangang Fan.

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Li, L., Qiu, Q., Zhang, X. et al. Assessment of different ventilation strategies on ventilation performance in immersed tunnels. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021).

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  • Pollutant gas
  • Immersed tunnel
  • Ventilation mode
  • Smoke extraction
  • Numerical simulation