Personal deposited dose and its influencing factors at several Greek sites: an analysis in respect to seasonal and diurnal variations

Abstract

The deposited dose in the human respiratory tract and its influencing factors were investigated for 8 urban/suburban locations within Greek cities. A dosimetry model (ExDoM2) was implemented assuming a 24-h exposure scenario to ambient PM10 whereby regional deposition rates were obtained. Simulations were performed considering three cases (Sahara dust, cold, and warm periods) with seasonal and diurnal variations examining the relative sources and other influencing factors in each case. Health risk indexes such as the relative risk and attributable fraction were also estimated. Overall, higher daily deposited dose was obtained for all urban compared with suburban locations (p < 0.05) and for cold compared with the warm periods (252–820 μg for cold period and 300–686 μg for warm period) for all locations. This finding was associated with increased deposition rate on cold period during evening/night hours, as a result of significant heating emissions. Besides that, most of the urban locations showed relative comparable deposition rates during the day, compared with the daily mean, for the two periods (cold and warm), indicating that urban-associated sources such as exhaust emissions and road dust resuspension contribute similarly to the deposited dose irrespectively of the season. Finally, the highest deposited dose was obtained during Sahara dust events ranged from 1881 to 4648 μg.

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Data availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Funding

This work was supported by the project “PANhellenic infrastructure for Atmospheric Composition and climatE change” (MIS 5021516) which is implemented under the Action “Reinforcement of the Research and Innovation Infrastructure,” funded by the Operational Program “Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” (NSRF 2014–2020), and co-financed by the Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund).

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EC implemented the dosimetry model (ExDoM2) and wrote the manuscript. SEC analyzed the input data and co-wrote the manuscript. IK conducted field measurements in Chania. DM and DP contributed to the data analysis. NM provided data for Heraklion and critical corrections to the manuscript. ML supervised the preparation of the paper and conceived the idea of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mihalis Lazaridis.

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Chalvatzaki, E., Chatoutsidou, S.E., Kopanakis, I. et al. Personal deposited dose and its influencing factors at several Greek sites: an analysis in respect to seasonal and diurnal variations. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12815-y

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Keywords

  • Dosimetry model
  • Deposition
  • Particulate matter
  • Dust
  • Respiratory tract
  • Health risk