Transport of surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used and may pose potential environmental risks to soil and groundwater systems. Therefore, it is important to improve current understanding of the fate and transport of CNTs in porous media. In this study, the transport behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different surface modifications were examined in water-saturated sand columns under different pH (5 and 7) and ionic strength (0.1, 1, and 5 mM) conditions. COOH-MWCNTs have the strongest mobility among the five types of MWCNTs, followed by pristine MWCNTs. NH2-MWCNTs, Cu-MWCNTs, and Fe-MWCNTs have the weaker mobility. The transport of five types of MWCNTs decreased with the increase of ionic strength, while increased with the increase of pH value. The results suggested that the transport of MWCNTs can be affected by the electrostatic attraction between the functional groups on the surface of MWCNTs and quartz sand. Moreover, the pH and ionic strength of the solution also played an important role in enhancing the transport of MWCNTs, which have great significance for evaluating the transport and fate of MWCNTs in natural environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Data availability

The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time as the data also form part of an ongoing study.

References

  1. Chen J, Chen W, Zhu D (2008) Adsorption of nonionic aromatic compounds to single-walled carbon nanotubes: effects of aqueous solution chemistry. Environ Ence Technol 42:7225–7230

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chen H, Li W, Wang J, Xu H, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Li Y, Zhang Y (2019) Adsorption of cadmium and lead ions by phosphoric acid-modified biochar generated from chicken feather: selective adsorption and influence of dissolved organic matter. Bioresour Technol 292:121948

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chen G, Liu X, Su C (2011) Transport and retention of TiO2 rutile nanoparticles in saturated porous media under low-ionic-strength conditions: measurements and mechanisms. Langmuir the Acs journal of Surfaces & Colloids 27:5393–5402

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Dong C, Li X, Zhang Y, Qi J, Yuan Y (2009) Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their sorption properties. Chem Res Chin Univ 25:936–940

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dong S, Sun Y, Gao B, Shi X, Xu H, Wu J, Wu J (2017) Retention and transport of graphene oxide in water-saturated limestone media. Chemosphere 180:506–512

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Feriancikova L, Xu S (2012) Deposition and remobilization of graphene oxide within saturated sand packs. J Hazard Mater 235-236:194–200

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hotze EM, Phenrat T, Lowry GV (2010) Nanoparticle aggregation: challenges to understanding transport and reactivity in the environment. J Environ Qual 39:1909–1924

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Jaisi DP, Saleh NB, Blake RE, Elimelech M (2008) Transport of single-walled carbon nanotubes in porous media: filtration mechanisms and reversibility. Environ Ence Technol 42:8317–8323

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Johnson PR, Sun N, Elimelech M (1996) Colloid transport in geochemically heterogeneous porous media: modeling and measurements. Environ Sci Technol 30:3284–3293

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kasel D, Bradford SA, Simunek J, Heggen M, Vereecken H, Klumpp E (2013) Transport and retention of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media: effects of input concentration and grain size. Water Res 47:933–944

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kumar SA, Wang S-F (2009) Adsorption of ciprofloxacin and its role for stabilizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes and characterization. Mater Lett 63:1830–1833

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Lead JR, Batley GE, Alvarez PJJ, Croteau MN, Handy RD, McLaughlin MJ, Judy JD, Schirmer K (2018) Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects—an updated review. Environ Toxicol Chem 37:2029–2063

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Li D, Li C, Gao B, Li Y, Sun H, Wang M (2019) Transport of N-doped graphene in saturated porous media. Chem Eng J 360:24–29

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Li D, Liu L, Li C, Wu K (2018) Characterization of adsorption of methylene blue by Cu/CuO-modified carbon nanotubes. J Agro-Environ Sci 37:2289–2296

    Google Scholar 

  15. Liu Y, Cui G, Luo C, Zhang L, Guo Y, Yan S (2014) Synthesis, characterization and application of amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for effective fast removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution. RSC Adv 4:55162–55172

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Liu L, Li D, Li C, Ji R, Tian X (2018) Metal nanoparticles by doping carbon nanotubes improved the sorption of perfluorooctanoic acid. J Hazard Mater 351:206–214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Liu X, O'Carroll DM, Petersen EJ, Huang Q, Anderson CL (2009) Mobility of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in porous media. Environ Ence Technol 43:8153–8158

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Lv X, Gao B, Sun Y, Shi X, Xu H, Wu J (2014) Effects of humic acid and solution chemistry on the retention and transport of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 225

  19. Mattison NT, O'Carroll DM, Kerry Rowe R, Petersen EJ (2011) Impact of porous media grain size on the transport of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Environ Ence Technol 45:9765–9775

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mohd Omar F, Abdul Aziz H, Stoll S (2014) Aggregation and disaggregation of ZnO nanoparticles: influence of pH and adsorption of Suwannee River humic acid. Sci Total Environ 468-469:195–201

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Petersen EJ, Zhang L, Mattison NT, O'Carroll DM, Whelton J, Uddin N, Nguyen T, Huang Q, Henry TB, Holbrook RD (2011) Potential release pathways, environmental fate, and ecological risks of carbon nanotubes. Environ Ence Technol 45:9837–9856

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Sharma P, Bao D, Fagerlund F (2014) Deposition and mobilization of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media: effect of grain size, flow velocity and solution chemistry. Environ Earth Sci 72:3025–3035

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sun K, Dong S, Sun Y, Gao B, Du W, Xu H, Wu J (2018) Graphene oxide-facilitated transport of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in saturated and unsaturated porous media. J Hazard Mater 348:92–99

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Tasis D, Tagmatarchis N, Georgakilas V, Prato M (2003) Soluble carbon nanotubes. Cheminform 34:4000–4008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Tian Y, Gao B, Morales VL, Wang Y, Wu L (2012) Effect of surface modification on single-walled carbon nanotube retention and transport in saturated and unsaturated porous media. J Hazard Mater 239-240:333–339

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Tian Y, Gao B, Wang Y, Morales VL, Carpena RM, Huang Q, Yang L (2012) Deposition and transport of functionalized carbon nanotubes in water-saturated sand columns. J Hazard Mater 213-214:265–272

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Tian Y, Gao B, Wu L, Munoz-Carpena R, Huang Q (2012) Effect of solution chemistry on multi-walled carbon nanotube deposition and mobilization in clean porous media. J Hazard Mater 231-232:79–87

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Tian Y, Gao B, Ziegler KJ (2011) High mobility of SDBS-dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated and unsaturated porous media. J Hazard Mater 186:1766–1772

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Wang X, Cai L, Han P, Lin D, Kim H, Tong M (2014) Cotransport of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media. Environ Pollut 195:31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.08.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Wang S, Gao B, Li Y, Creamer AE, He F (2017) Adsorptive removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions by biochar supported zero-valent iron nanocomposite: Batch and continuous flow tests. J Hazard Mater 322:172–181

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wang X, Zhang F, Xia B, Zhu X, Chen J, Qiu S, Zhang P, Li J (2009) Controlled modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with CuO, Cu2O and Cu nanoparticles. Solid State Sci 11:655–659

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Zang Z, Hu Z, Li Z, He Q, Chang X (2009) Synthesis, characterization and application of ethylenediamine-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of metal ions. J Hazard Mater 172:958–963

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 21377074).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M. Tan performed the data analyses and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. L. Liu helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions. D. Li performed the experiment and contributed significantly to the analysis. C. Li contributed to the conception of the study, and helped review and edit for this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chengliang Li.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

Supplementary Information

ESM 1

(DOCX 347 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tan, M., Liu, L., Li, D. et al. Transport of surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12780-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Modification
  • Transport
  • Mobility
  • pH
  • Ionic strength