Occurrence, spatial distribution, source, and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in Dongting Lake, China

Abstract

The occurrence, distribution, sources, and ecological risks of organochlorine pesticides in Dongting Lake of China were investigated. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 22 surface water samples and 14 sediment samples were 90.07 ng/L and 80.65 ng/g dw, respectively. Sixteen types of OCPs, dominated by HCHs, DDTs and heptachlor, were detected in the Dongting Lake. The relationships of OCP residues between Dongting Lake and its tributary rivers have been discussed and the hydraulic connections with the Yangtze River and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) were also considered. Results showed that the shortage of runoff, earlier dry season, and reduction of sediment deposition extremely deteriorated the hydraulic conditions, magnified the water cycle, and restrained the self-purification of OCPs. The ∑OCPs in surface water were concentrated in the inlets of Yangtze River, Lishui River, Zishui River, Yuanshui River, and Xiangjiang River. Moreover, the ∑OCPs in the outlet of the Yangtze River also maintained a high level, indicating that OCPs posed adverse effects on the Yangtze River. Risk assessments of OCPs in the surface water of Dongting Lake were estimated according to available water quality guidelines and health risk assessment models. The results indicated that OCPs in the surface water of Dongting Lake were safe for aquatic organisms and human health. In addition, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were also applied to evaluate the potential ecotoxicological risks of OCPs in sediments. The results presented that contaminants of γ-HCH; o,p′-DDD; and dieldrin in sediment had adverse effects on benthic organisms, indicating that fundamental solutions should be proposed to control OCP contamination in Dongting Lake.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this manuscript and its supplementary information files.

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Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41807393) Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2015FY11-0900) and the State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.

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1. Fengmei Cao conducted experiments that led to the submission, acquired data, played an important role in interpreting the results, and drafted the manuscript.

2. Shaoyong Lu offered the conception of the study; contributed reagents materials and analysis tools for data analysis; and finally approved the final version.

3. Zhaozhao Li and Qi He helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions and gave suggestions when performing experiments.

4. Pan Qin helped to get samples in the field with careful maintenance.

5. Linlin Li helped perform the analysis with ARCGIS figures.

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Correspondence to Shaoyong Lu.

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Cao, F., Li, Z., He, Q. et al. Occurrence, spatial distribution, source, and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in Dongting Lake, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12743-x

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Keywords

  • OCPs
  • Distribution Sources
  • Ecological risk
  • Dongting Lake