Ecotoxicological risk assessment of pentachlorophenol, an emerging DBP to plants: evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant responses

Abstract

Chlorophenols are not only noticed in an effluvium of industries but also can emerge from the water treatment plants for domestic supply which poses a high threat for crop production and human health. Therefore, research on their risks to ecosystem and human health via ecotoxicological tests to derivate permissible environmental contaminant concentrations is necessary. The chlorophenols produced in the course of chlorination of potable water is an outcome of natural carboxylic acids/organic material and those chlorophenols occurred as emerging disinfection byproducts (EDBPs). Among chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been recently identified as one of the important EDBPs. The main objective was to evaluate the PCP-induced genotoxicity and the oxidative damage in two plant species, i.e., Allium cepa and Vigna radiata. Genotoxicity of PCP was examined at three selected concentrations based on EC50 (half-maximal effective concentrations) values in both the plants along with the defense mechanism. EC50 value for A. cepa and V. radiata was 0.7 mg/L and 35 mg/L. Root length inhibition, DNA laddering, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, and antioxidant enzymatic assays evaluated revealed a dose-dependent response. PCP influenced defense enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) action in both plants and showed deprivement of catalase (CAT) with the increase of PCP concentrations. PCP-invaded toxicity management by these plants implied that A. cepa is more sensitive than V. radiata regarding PCP-induced toxicity.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge TEQIP II, MHRD, and the National Institute of Technology, Durgapur for availing good research facilities.

Funding

This work was supported by Prof. Tamal Mandal, Centre for Technological Excellence in Water Purification (CTEWP), (No. DST/TM/WTI/WIC/2K17/84(G)), Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

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Jyoti Ranjan, preparation, methodology, investigation, software, and writing (original draft); Vayam Joshi, methodology, investigation, and preparation; Prof. Tamal Mandal, methodology, data curation, preparation, and writing (reviewing and editing); and Prof. Dalia Dasgupta Mandal, conceptualization, methodology, supervision, validation, and writing (reviewing and editing).

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Correspondence to Dalia Dasgupta Mandal .

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Ranjan , J., Joshi , V., Mandal , T. et al. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of pentachlorophenol, an emerging DBP to plants: evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant responses. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 27954–27965 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12578-6

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Keywords

  • Pentachlorophenol (PCP)
  • Allium Cepa
  • Vigna radiata
  • DNA fragmentation
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Defense mechanism