The addition of bean curd dreg improved the quality of mixed cow manure and corn stalk composting: enhancing the maturity and improving the micro-ecological environment


Bean curd dreg (BCD) is a by-product of bean products, which can be used as a great ingredient for composting, but it combined with cow manure and corn stalk composting was rarely reported. In this study, the effect of BCD on the maturity and the micro-ecological environment was investigated under a lab-scale composting experiment and found that BCD was conducive to improve the maturity of compost during the BCD application. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that the final humus content in BCD treatments was richer than that in CK treatment. High-throughput sequencing results showed that BCD-applied better ameliorated the bacteria community structure with higher Actinomycetes abundance and lower denitrifying bacteria abundance in the late stage of composting. PICRUSt results showed that BCD-added decreased the abundance of microbial metabolic genes in the high temperature period (> 70 °C), but the metabolic abundance increased rapidly as the temperature cooled down. Compared with CK, the metabolic abundance decreased significantly on day 24, which was consistent with the conclusion of composting maturity. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results indicated that there were significant discrepancies in the microbial community structure of samples at different composting periods and the change of the dominant population in the BCD-treated compost samples were more outstanding than that in the CK treatment. Hence, BCD is a very good composting modifier that compensates for the disadvantages of composting and enhances the fertility of the compost product.

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The authors gratefully acknowledge their family, teachers, and classmates for their help in making this study more meaningful.

Data and materials availability

The datasets used or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


This work was financially supported by Jilin Provincial Department of Education “13th five-year” science and technology project (JJKH20190714KJ), Science and Technology Development Project of Jilin Province (20180101309JC).

Author information




Bing Wang: writing-reviewing and editing.

Jianquan Yan: writing-original draft preparation and editing, software.

Guomin Li: data curation, software.

Qingtong Cao: conceptualization, methodology, validation.

Houhe Chen: visualization.

Jian Zhang: supervision.

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Correspondence to Bing Wang.

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Wang, B., Yan, J., Li, G. et al. The addition of bean curd dreg improved the quality of mixed cow manure and corn stalk composting: enhancing the maturity and improving the micro-ecological environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021).

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  • Aerobic composting
  • Bean curd dreg (BCD)
  • Seed germination index (GI)
  • Excitation-emission matrix (EEM)
  • Microbial community structure
  • Bacterial function prediction