Markers of oxidative stress and toxicant exposure among young waterpipe smokers in the USA

Abstract

Waterpipe (aka hookah) tobacco smokers are exposed to toxicants that can lead to oxidative DNA and RNA damage, a precursor to chronic disease formation. This study assessed toxicant exposure and biomarkers of DNA [8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)] and RNA [8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo)] oxidative damage during smoking of flavored and non-flavored waterpipe tobacco. Thirty waterpipe smokers completed two counterbalanced 2-h lab waterpipe smoking sessions (flavored vs. non-flavored waterpipe tobacco). Urinary concentrations of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo and expired carbon monoxide (eCO) were measured before and after the smoking sessions. A significant increase in the urinary concentrations of 8-oxodG (from 2.12 ± 0.83 to 2.35 ± 0.91 ng/mg creatinine, p = 0.024) and 8-oxoGuo (from 2.96 ± 0.84 to 3.45 ± 0.76 ng/mg creatinine, p = 0.003) were observed after smoking the non-flavored and flavored waterpipe tobacco, respectively. Our results also showed that the mean ± SD of eCO increased significantly after smoking the flavored (from 1.3 ± 1.1 to 20.3 ± 23.6 ppm, p < 0.001) and non-flavored waterpipe tobacco (from 1.8 ± 1.2 to 24.5 ± 26.1 ppm, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the means of 8-oxodG (p = 0.576), 8-oxoGuo (p = 0.108), and eCO (p = 0.170) between the flavored and non-flavored tobacco sessions. Smoking non-flavored and flavored waterpipe tobacco leads to oxidative stress and toxicant exposure. Our findings add to the existing evidence about the adverse effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and the need for strong policies to inform and protect young people from the risks of WTS.

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Data availability

The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all participants who contributed their time and completed laboratory study sessions.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse at National Institutes of Health (NIDA NIH) [R01 DA042477]; and Fogarty International Center (FIC) [R01TW010654-01]. RJ is supported by NIH FIC [R01TW010654]. MEK is supported by the NIDA NIH [R01DA042477]; and NIH FIC [R01TW010654]. MVR is supported by NIH FIC [R01TW010654]. OO is supported by the NIDA [T32DA043449]. ZB is supported by the FIU-Research Center in Minority Institution [U54MD012393-01]. WM is supported by NIH [R01-DA035160, R01-TW010654, R01-DA042477] and the NIDA [T32DA043449]. This study was approved by the Florida International University (FIU) Institutional Review Board.

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Contributions

RJ and WM conceptualized and designed the study and drafted the initial manuscript. RJ, MEK, and ZB conducted data analysis. MEK, MVR, OO, WL, PG, MC, CH, and ZB contributed to the interpretation of data and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wasim Maziak.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

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The Florida International University Institutional Review Board has approved the study protocol based on the fact that it protects patients’ anonymity and confidentiality. A written informed consent was obtained from those who approved to participate in the study.

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Appendix

Appendix

Table 1 Baseline characteristics for the overall sample (n=30)
Table 2 Concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo by time (pre vs. post) and flavor session (flavored vs. non-flavored)
Table 3 Concentrations (ppm) of eCO by time (pre vs. post) and flavor session (flavored vs. non-flavored)

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Jebai, R., Ebrahimi Kalan, M., Vargas-Rivera, M. et al. Markers of oxidative stress and toxicant exposure among young waterpipe smokers in the USA. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12520-w

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Keywords

  • DNA
  • RNA
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine
  • Oxidative damage
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Waterpipe