Potential protective effects of Spirulina platensis on liver, kidney, and brain acrylamide toxicity in rats


Acrylamide (AA) is a hazardous chemical that is widely used in industrial practices. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue green alga that is rich in bioactive compounds with many medicinal benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of SP against AA toxicity in rats. Animals were divided into six groups: Group (1) was normal rats, groups (2) and (3) received SP at 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW orally respectively for 21 days, group (4) was administered 20 mg/kg BW AA daily for 14 days, while groups (5) and (6) were given orally SP at the same doses of groups (2) and (3), then AA at similar dose of group (4). Rats that received AA alone displayed markedly increased serum levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), kidney function parameters (urea and creatinine), DNA damage marker (8-OHdG), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), compared to control rats. Furthermore, tissue analysis revealed marked increases in hepatic, renal, and brain MDA and NO, as well as marked reductions in the antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT) in acrylamide-intoxicated rats. Spirulina ameliorated the alterations in serum biochemical parameters and reduced MDA and NO, as well as improved antioxidant biomarkers in AA-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Our results show that SP has a powerful protective effect on serum biochemistry and liver, kidney, and brain antioxidant machinery in AA-intoxicated rats.

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Data availability

All data are available from the corresponding author when required.





alanine aminotransferase


alkaline phosphatase


analysis of variance


aspartate aminotransferase


body weight


degree Celsius




carbon tetrachloride


deoxyribonucleic acid


enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay




reduced glutathione


glutathione peroxidase
















nitric oxide

Na2HPO4 :

disodium hydrogen phosphate

NaH2PO4 :

sodium dihydrogen phosphate




potential of hydrogen


reactive oxygen species


revolutions per minute


standard error of the mean


superoxide dismutase

SP :

Spirulina platensis


Statistical Package for Social Sciences


tumor necrosis factor-alpha






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The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project number PNU-DRI-RI-20-009.


The Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia funded this research through project number PNU-DRI-RI-20-009.

Author information




Idea and design: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Data collection: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Data analysis: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Funding: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Investigation: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F.

Methodology: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F.

Project administration: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Software: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Supervision: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Validation: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Visualization: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Manuscript draft writing: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Manuscript revision and editing: M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

All the authors approved and confirmed this submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

The Research Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, permitted the experimental scheme and animal management (approval no. 2020042). We took all the possible procedures to reduce rat sufferance.

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Not applicable as the present study did not include human subject.

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Bin-Jumah, M.N., AL-Huqail, A.A., Abdelnaeim, N. et al. Potential protective effects of Spirulina platensis on liver, kidney, and brain acrylamide toxicity in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12422-x

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  • Acrylamide
  • Spirulina platensis
  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Rats