Potential protective effects of Spirulina platensis on liver, kidney, and brain acrylamide toxicity in rats

Abstract

Acrylamide (AA) is a hazardous chemical that is widely used in industrial practices. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue green alga that is rich in bioactive compounds with many medicinal benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of SP against AA toxicity in rats. Animals were divided into six groups: Group (1) was normal rats, groups (2) and (3) received SP at 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW orally respectively for 21 days, group (4) was administered 20 mg/kg BW AA daily for 14 days, while groups (5) and (6) were given orally SP at the same doses of groups (2) and (3), then AA at similar dose of group (4). Rats that received AA alone displayed markedly increased serum levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), kidney function parameters (urea and creatinine), DNA damage marker (8-OHdG), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), compared to control rats. Furthermore, tissue analysis revealed marked increases in hepatic, renal, and brain MDA and NO, as well as marked reductions in the antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT) in acrylamide-intoxicated rats. Spirulina ameliorated the alterations in serum biochemical parameters and reduced MDA and NO, as well as improved antioxidant biomarkers in AA-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Our results show that SP has a powerful protective effect on serum biochemistry and liver, kidney, and brain antioxidant machinery in AA-intoxicated rats.

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Data availability

All data are available from the corresponding author when required.

Abbreviations

AA:

acrylamide

ALT:

alanine aminotransferase

ALP:

alkaline phosphatase

ANOVA:

analysis of variance

AST:

aspartate aminotransferase

BW:

body weight

°C:

degree Celsius

CAT:

catalase

CCl4:

carbon tetrachloride

DNA:

deoxyribonucleic acid

ELISA:

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

g:

gram

GSH:

reduced glutathione

GSH-Px:

glutathione peroxidase

h:

hour

IL:

interleukin

kg:

kilogram

MDA:

malondialdehyde

mg:

milligram

min:

minute

mM:

millimolar

NO:

nitric oxide

Na2HPO4 :

disodium hydrogen phosphate

NaH2PO4 :

sodium dihydrogen phosphate

P:

probability

pH:

potential of hydrogen

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

rpm:

revolutions per minute

SEM:

standard error of the mean

SOD:

superoxide dismutase

SP :

Spirulina platensis

SPSS:

Statistical Package for Social Sciences

TNF-α:

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

8-OHdG:

8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine

β:

beta

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Acknowledgements

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project number PNU-DRI-RI-20-009.

Funding

The Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia funded this research through project number PNU-DRI-RI-20-009.

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Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Idea and design: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Data collection: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Data analysis: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Funding: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Investigation: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F.

Methodology: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F.

Project administration: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Software: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Supervision: M.B-J., M. M. A-D.

Validation: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Visualization: N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Manuscript draft writing: M.B-J., A.A.A., N. A., M. K., M.M.A.F., M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

Manuscript revision and editing: M.M.A.A., I.M.S., M. M. A-D.

All the authors approved and confirmed this submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

The Research Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, permitted the experimental scheme and animal management (approval no. 2020042). We took all the possible procedures to reduce rat sufferance.

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Not applicable as the present study did not include human subject.

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Bin-Jumah, M.N., AL-Huqail, A.A., Abdelnaeim, N. et al. Potential protective effects of Spirulina platensis on liver, kidney, and brain acrylamide toxicity in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12422-x

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Keywords

  • Acrylamide
  • Spirulina platensis
  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Rats