Assessment of the relationship between renewable energy and employment of the United States of America: Empirical evidence from spectral Granger causality


In this study, the spectral Granger causality nexus between renewable energy generation and employment for the period February 1973–September 2019 in the USA is examined. The results obtained from the study expresses that there is no spectral Granger causality relationship between renewable energy generation and employment for aforementioned period in the USA. Furthermore, these findings support neutrality hypothesis, which means that there is no causality relation between the variables. In other words, renewable energy generation does not influence employment and employment does not have an effect on renewable energy generation.

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Data availability

[dataset] BLS, 2020.

[dataset] EIA, 2020.


  1. 1.

    We consider total renewable energy generation, as there is no monthly data regarding non-hydro renewable energy generation from EIA database.


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This study did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information




Orkun Çelik conceived and designed the study. Orkun Çelik collected and contributed the data. Orkun Çelik performed the analysis and wrote the study. Orkun Çelik read and approved the final study.

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Correspondence to Orkun Çelik.

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Çelik, O. Assessment of the relationship between renewable energy and employment of the United States of America: Empirical evidence from spectral Granger causality. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021).

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  • Renewable energy
  • Employment
  • Job
  • Green job
  • Time series
  • Spectral Granger causality