Persistence and efficacy of enhanced diatomaceous earth, imidacloprid, and Beauveria bassiana against three coleopteran and one psocid stored-grain insects

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Abstract

The residual efficacy of the enhanced diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation DEBBM alone and in combination with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) or with the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), and Liposcelis paeta (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) was investigated in the laboratory. The combination treatments were more effective compared to the single treatments against all examined species. The combinations of DEBBM and imidacloprid and imidacloprid with the highest dose rate of B. bassiana provided the highest mortality values against all tested species for 90 days of storage period. The combination of DEBBM plus B. bassiana resulted to the highest mortalities and to the lowest offspring production of all combinations tested after 180 days of storage. Mortality of adults for each test insect species was decreased over the storage period of 6 months, and the progeny production was increased with the extended storage period. Among the tested insect species, L. paeta was the most susceptible to all three grain protectants followed by C. ferrugineus, R. domina, and T. castaneum. The findings of the current study suggest that the use of DEBBM, imidacloprid, and B. bassiana as grain protectants may provide elevated control of major stored-grain insect species during a prolonged period of storage.

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Fig. 1

Data availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Change history

  • 22 January 2021

    Spelling correction in the title of Arthur et al. 1990

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Dr. Zlatko Korunic (Diatom Research and Consulting Inc., Toronto, Canada) for providing the enhanced DE used in the study.

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WW and TS conceived and designed research. WW conducted experiments. WW and NGK analyzed data. WW wrote and NGK, TS edited in detail and finalized the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Waqas Wakil or Nickolas G. Kavallieratos.

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Wakil, W., Schmitt, T. & Kavallieratos, N.G. Persistence and efficacy of enhanced diatomaceous earth, imidacloprid, and Beauveria bassiana against three coleopteran and one psocid stored-grain insects. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12304-8

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Keywords

  • Neonicotinoid insecticide
  • Residual effect
  • Entomopathogenic fungus
  • Enhanced diatomaceous earth
  • Stored-grain insects