Acrylamide-induced peripheral neuropathy: manifestations, mechanisms, and potential treatment modalities

Abstract

Acrylamide is a chemical monomer; its polymer compounds are used in the manufacture of plastic, papers, adhesive tapes, dyes, and food packaging. Lately, scientists found that cooking (mainly roasting, baking, and frying) yields acrylamide. In addition to fried/baked potatoes, coffee and bakery products still contain substantial amounts of acrylamide. Acrylamide has toxic effects on different body systems include genitourinary, reproductive, nervous system, along with being a carcinogenic substance. The neurotoxicity of acrylamide includes central and peripheral neuropathy. In humans, the clinical manifestations include sensory or motor peripheral neuropathy, drowsiness, or cerebellar ataxia. Likewise, it presents with skeletal muscle weakness, hindlimb dysfunction, ataxia, and weight loss in animals. The suggested mechanisms for acrylamide neurotoxicity include direct inhibition of neurotransmission, cellular changes, inhibition of key cellular enzymes, and bonding of kinesin-based fast axonal transport. Moreover, it is suggested that acrylamide’s molecular effect on SNARE core kinetics is carried out through the adduction of NSF and/or SNARE proteins. Lately, scientists showed disruption of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) cell signaling pathways in human differentiating neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, exposed to acrylamide. Different treatment modalities have been revealed to shield against or hasten recovery from acrylamide-induced neuropathy in preclinical studies, including phytochemical, biological, and vitamin-based compounds. Still, additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to identify the best treatment modality.

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Data availability

Not applicable for this study.

Abbreviations

FAK:

focal adhesion kinase

FK506:

tacrolimus

MESM:

methanolic leaf extract of Swietenia mahagoni

Methyl-B12:

methylcobalamin

NSF:

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein

Pyk2:

proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2

SNAREs:

soluble NSF attachment protein receptors

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Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University through the Fast-track Research Funding Program.

Funding

This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University through the Fast-track Research Funding Program.

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Idea and design: M.B-J., A-F. M. A-F, E. M. S., H. R.E., M. M. A-D; data collection: M.B-J., A-F M. A-F, E. M. S., H. R.E., M. M. A-D; data analysis: M.B-J., A-F M. A-F, E. M. S., H. R.E., M. M. A-D; funding: M.B-J., M. M. A-D; manuscript writing: M.B-J., A-F M. A-F, E. M. S., H. R.E., M. M. A-D; manuscript revision: M.B-J., A-F M. A-F, E. M. S., H. R.E., M. M. A-D. All authors approved and confirmed this submission.

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Correspondence to Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim.

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Bin-Jumah, M., Abdel-Fattah, AF.M., Saied, E.M. et al. Acrylamide-induced peripheral neuropathy: manifestations, mechanisms, and potential treatment modalities. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12287-6

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Keywords

  • Acrylamide
  • Formation
  • Metabolism
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Mechanisms
  • Treatments