Environmental evaluation and optimization of energy use and greenhouse gases mitigation for farm production systems in Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

The current paper aimed at evaluating and optimizing the efficiency of energy use and mitigation of environmental pollution by minimizing the emissions and intensity of greenhouse gases (GHG) for farm production systems in Mashhad, Iran. The results indicated that the total values of consumed energy were equal to 28,648, 38,479, and 43,490 MJha−1 for barley, canola, and forage corn, respectively. The highest rate of the consumed energy for all crops belonged to irrigation electricity, diesel fuel, and nitrogen consumption. The highest and lowest energy efficiencies were respectively achieved from forage corn and canola, while barley production led to the lowest GHG emissions. The estimation of GHG intensity demonstrated that canola with 53% took up the highest intensity, which was followed by barley (30%) and forage corn (17%). Since the intensity of GHG takes into account the amount of energy produced by each crop per hectare, this index is more suitable than GHG emissions for assessing environmental pollution. The results of optimal responses of the multiple goal programming (MGP) model revealed that the optimum evaluated cultivation areas (for meeting the goals of the study) for barley and forage corn were 10,088 and 3256 ha, respectively, while the MGP model generally eliminates canola from the cultivation plan. On the other hand, the plan proposed by the MGP model increases the total energy efficiency from 103,625 for the current systems to 105,169 for the optimized systems per year. Furthermore, the emissions and intensity of GHG were reduced by the model to 311,786 kgCO2eq and 10 kgCO2eq MJoutput−1 per year, respectively.

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Correspondence to Morteza Almassi.

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Taleghani, A., Almassi, M. & Ghahderijani, M. Environmental evaluation and optimization of energy use and greenhouse gases mitigation for farm production systems in Mashhad, Iran. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09778-x

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Keywords

  • Optimization
  • Energy efficiency
  • Mitigation
  • GHG emissions
  • GHG intensity