Identifying environmental pollution recorded in street dust using the magnetic method: a case study from central eastern China

Abstract

Urban street dust constitutes important intermediate products for the transmission of solid organic and inorganic pollutants in the urban environment. In this study, 133 street dust samples were collected from Xinyang to explore their magnetic characteristics, spatial distribution, and environmental implications using magnetic measurements. The results are as follows. (1) There were ferrimagnetic, antiferrimagnetic, and paramagnetic (e.g., lepidocrocite) minerals in the dust. Among these, the dominant magnetic carriers were ferrimagnetic minerals. Furthermore, magnetite was a first-order ferrimagnetic carrier. (2) The magnetic domains of the dust were pseudo single-domain to multi-domain. (3) The magnetic concentration (χ and SIRM) of dust were 2.6 and 4.1 times higher than those of background samples that were not polluted by urban and anthropogenic activities, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the dust consisted of high concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals and coarse magnetic particles. (4) The magnetic distribution was spatially different. The industrial area, which was the most polluted sampling area, had the highest magnetic concentration and the coarsest magnetic particles. This was attributable to industrial emissions, fossil fuel combustion, and exhaust emissions from heavy-laden trucks. Residential and commercial areas, which were the second most polluted areas, had higher concentration and coarser particles. This was primarily due to the high population density and traffic activities of mini-cars (i.e., high flux and exhaust emissions). Hence, the conclusion is that the magnetic characteristics, spatial distribution, and the sources of dust are dictated by anthropogenic activities. Our results indicate that the magnetic method is a highly effective tool to monitor urban environmental pollution.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Abbasi S, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Hopke PK, Kelly FJ, Dominguez AO (2020) Elemental and magnetic analyses, source identification, and oxidative potential of airborne, passive, and street dust particles in Asaluyeh County, Iran. Sci Total Environ 707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136132

  2. Banerjee SK, King J, Marvin J (1981) A rapid for magnetic granulometry with applications to environmental studies. Geophys Res Lett 8:333–336

    Google Scholar 

  3. Beckwith P, Ellis J, Revitt D, Oldfield F (1986) Heavy metal and magnetic relationships for urban source sediments. Phys Earth Planet Inter 42:67–75

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bloemendal J, Barton C, Radhakrishnamurthy C (1985) Correlation between Rayleigh loops and frequency-dependent and quadrature susceptibility: application to magnetic granulometry of rocks. J Geophys Res 90:8789–8792

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bloemendal J, King J, Hall F, Doh SJ (1992) Rock magnetism of late Neogene and Pleistocene deep-sea sediments: relationship to sediment source, diagenetic processes, and sediment lithology. J Geophys Res 97:4361–4375

    Google Scholar 

  6. Boyko T, Scholger R, Stanjek H, Team M (2004) Topsoil magnetic susceptibility mapping as a tool for pollution monitoring: repeatability of in situ measurements. J Appl Geophys 55:249–259

    Google Scholar 

  7. Chen H, Wang B, Xia DS, Fan YJ, Liu H, Tang ZR, Ma S (2019) Magnetic characteristics of Juniperus formosana needles along an urban street in Lanzhou, Northwest China: the variation of different season and orientation. Environ Sci Pollut R 26:21964–21971

    Google Scholar 

  8. Day R, Fuller M, Schmidt VA (1977) Hysteresis properties of titanomagnetites: grain-size and compositional dependence. Phys Earth Planet Inter 13:260–267

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dearing JA, Bird PM, Dann RJL, Benjamin SF (1997) Secondary ferrimagnetic minerals in Welsh soils: a comparison of mineral magnetic detection methods and implications for mineral formation. Geophys J Int 130:727–736

    Google Scholar 

  10. Declercq Y, Samson R, Castanheiro A, Spassov S, Tack FM, Van De Vijver E, De Smedt P (2019) Evaluating the potential of topsoil magnetic pollution mapping across different land use classes. Sci Total Environ 685:345–356

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Deng C, Vidic NJ, Verosub KL, Singer MJ, Liu Q, Shaw J, Zhu R (2005) Mineral magnetic variation of the Jiaodao Chinese loess/paleosol sequence and its bearing on long-term climatic variability. J Geophys Res 110. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003451

  12. Deng C, Zhu R, Jackson MJ, Verosub KL, Singer MJ (2001) Variability of the temperature-dependent susceptibility of the Holocene eolian deposits in the Chinese loess plateau: a pedogenesis indicator. Phys Chem Earth Pt A 26:873–878

    Google Scholar 

  13. Deng C, Zhu R, Verosub KL, Singer MJ, Vidic NJ (2004) Mineral magnetic properties of loess/paleosol couplets of the central loess plateau of China over the last 1.2 Myr. J Geophys Res 109. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002532

  14. Desenfant F, Petrovský E, Rochette P (2004) Magnetic signature of industrial pollution of stream sediments and correlation with heavy metals: case study from South France. Water Air Soil Poll 152:297–312

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Dunlop DJ (2002) Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/Ms versus Hcr/Hc) 2. Application to data for rocks, sediments, and soils. J Geophys Res:107. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000487

  16. Dunlop D, Özdemir Ö (1997) Rock magnetism: fundamentals and frontiers. Cambridge University Press, London

  17. Dytłow S, Winkler A, Górka-Kostrubiec B, Sagnotti L (2019) Magnetic, geochemical and granulometric properties of street dust from Warsaw (Poland). J Appl Geophys 169:58–73

    Google Scholar 

  18. Fergusson JE, Kim ND (1991) Trace elements in street and house dusts: sources and speciation. Sci Total Environ 100:125–150

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Flanders PJ (1994) Collection, measurement, and analysis of airborne magnetic particulates from pollution in the environment. J Appl Geophys 75:5931–5936

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Florindo F, Zhu R, Guo B, Yue L, Pan Y, Speranza F (1999) Magnetic proxy climate results from the Duanjiapo loess section, southernmost extremity of the Chinese loess plateau. J Geophys Res 104:645–659

  21. Gehring AU, Hofmeister AM (1994) The transformation of lepidocrocite during heating: a magnetic and spectroscopic study. Clay Clay Miner 42:409–415

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Guo B, Zhu R, Bai L, Florindo F (2001) Rock magnetic properties of a loess-paleosol couple along an NS transect in the Chinese loess plateau. Sci China Ser D 44(12):1099–1109

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Hanesch M, Scholger R (2002) Mapping of heavy metal loadings in soils by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. Environ Geol 42:857–870

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Harrison RM, Yin J (2000) Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health? Sci Total Environ 249:85–101

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Heller F, Strzyszcz Z, Magiera T (1998) Magnetic record of industrial pollution in forest soils of Upper Silesia, Poland. J Geophys Res 103:17767–17774

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Hoffmann V, Knab M, Appel E (1999) Magnetic susceptibility mapping of roadside pollution. J Geochem Explor 66:313–326

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Hunt A, Jones J, Oldfield F (1984) Magnetic measurements and heavy metals in atmospheric particulates of anthropogenic origin. Sci Total Environ 33:129–139

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Jordanova D, Jordanova N, Petrov P (2014) Magnetic susceptibility of road deposited sediments at a national scale–relation to population size and urban pollution. Environ Pollut 189:239–251

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Kapička A, Petrovský E, Ustjak S, Macháčková K (1999) Proxy mapping of fly-ash pollution of soils around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czech Republic. J Geochem Explor 66:291–297

    Google Scholar 

  30. Khademi H, Gabarrón M, Abbaspour A, Martínez-Martínez S, Faz A, Acosta J (2020) Distribution of metal (loid) s in particle size fraction in urban soil and street dust: influence of population density. Environ Geochem Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00515-4

  31. Kim W, Doh SJ, Yu Y (2009) Anthropogenic contribution of magnetic particulates in urban roadside dust. Atmos Environ 43:3137–3144

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. King J, Banerjee SK, Marvin J, Özdemir Ö (1982) A comparison of different magnetic methods for determining the relative grain size of magnetite in natural materials: some results from lake sediments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59:404–419

    Google Scholar 

  33. Kruiver PP, Dekkers MJ, Heslop D (2001) Quantification of magnetic coercivity components by the analysis of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetisation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 189:269–276

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Li P, Qiang XK, Tang YR, Fu CF, Xu XW, Li XB (2010) Magnetic susceptibility of the dust of street in Xi’an and the implication on pollution. China Environ Sci 30(3):309–314 (in Chinese)

  35. Liu D, Ma J, Sun Y, Li Y (2016) Spatial distribution of soil magnetic susceptibility and correlation with heavy metal pollution in Kaifeng City, China. Catena 139:53–60

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Liu H, Yan Y, Chang H, Chen H, Liang L, Liu X, Qiang X, Sun Y (2019) Magnetic signatures of natural and anthropogenic sources of urban dust aerosol. Atmos Chem Phys 19:731–745

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Liu Q, Deng C, Yu Y, Torrent J, Jackson MJ, Banerjee SK, Zhu R (2005) Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in an argon environment: implications for pedogenesis of Chinese loess/palaeosols. Geophys J Int 161:102–112

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Liu Q, Jackson MJ, Banerjee SK, Maher BA, Deng C, Pan Y, Zhu R (2004) Mechanism of the magnetic susceptibility enhancements of the Chinese loess. J Geophys Res 109. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003249

  39. Liu X, Shaw J, Liu T, Heller F, Yuan B (1992) Magnetic mineralogy of Chinese loess and its significance. Geophys J Int 108:301–308

    Google Scholar 

  40. Lu S, Bai S (2008) Magnetic characterization and magnetic mineralogy of the Hangzhou urban soils and its environmental implications. Chin J Geophys 51(3):762–769 (in Chinese)

  41. Lu S, Bai S, Xue Q (2007) Magnetic properties as indicators of heavy metals pollution in urban topsoils: a case study from the city of Luoyang, China. Geophys J Int 171:568–580

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Lu X, Wang L, Lei K, Huang J, Zhai Y (2009) Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J Hazard Mater 161:1058–1062

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Maher BA, Moore C, Matzka J (2008) Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves. Atmos Environ 42:364–373

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Maher BA, Prospero JM, Mackie D, Gaiero D, Hesse PP, Balkanski Y (2010) Global connections between aeolian dust, climate and ocean biogeochemistry at the present day and at the last glacial maximum. Earth-Sci Rev 99:61–97

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Maher BA, Taylor RM (1988) Formation of ultrafine-grained magnetic in soils. Nature 336:368–370

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Moreno E, Sagnotti L, Dinarès-Turell J, Winkler A, Cascella A (2003) Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves. Atmos Environ 37:2967–2977

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Ng SL, Chan LS, Lam KC, Chan WK (2003) Heavy metal contents and magnetic properties of playground dust in Hong Kong. Environ Monit Assess 89:221–232

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Nie J, King J, Fang X (2007) Enhancement mechanisms of magnetic susceptibility in the Chinese red-clay sequence. Geophys Res Lett 34. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031430

  49. Oches EA, Banerjee SK (1996) Rock-magnetic proxies of climate change from loess-paleosol sediments of the Czech Republic. Stud Geophys Geod 40:287–300

    Google Scholar 

  50. Özdemir Ö, Dunlop DJ, Moskowitz BM (1993) The effect of oxidation on the Verwey transition in magnetite. Geophys Res Lett 20:1671–1674

    Google Scholar 

  51. Petrovský E, Kapička A, Jordanova N, Borůvka L (2001) Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium. J Appl Geophys 48:127–136

    Google Scholar 

  52. Qiao Q, Huang B, Zhang C, Piper JD, Pan Y, Sun Y (2013) Assessment of heavy metal contamination of dustfall in northern China from integrated chemical and magnetic investigation. Atmos Environ 74:182–193

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Qiao Q, Zhang C, Huang B, Piper JD (2011) Evaluating the environmental quality impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: magnetic monitoring of street dust in Beijing Olympic Park. Geophys J Int 187:1222–1236

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Roberts AP, Cui Y, Verosub KL (1995) Wasp-waisted hysteresis loops: mineral magnetic characteristics and discrimination of components in mixed magnetic systems. J Geophys Res 100:17909–17924

    Google Scholar 

  55. Shu J, Dearing JA, Morse AP, Yu L, Yuan N (2001) Determining the sources of atmospheric particles in Shanghai, China, from magnetic and geochemical properties. Atmos Environ 35:2615–2625

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Thomson R, Oldfield F (1986) Environment magnetism. George Allen and Unwin, London

    Google Scholar 

  57. Wang B, Xia D, Yu Y, Chen H, Jia J (2018) Source apportionment of soil-contamination in Baotou City (North China) based on a combined magnetic and geochemical approach. Sci Total Environ 642:95–104

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Wang B, Xia D, Yu Y, Jia J, Xu S (2012a) Magnetic records of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoil in Lanzhou, China. Chin Sci Bull 58:384–395

    Google Scholar 

  59. Wang G, Chen J, Zhang W, Chen Y, Ren F, Fang A, Ma L (2019b) Relationship between magnetic properties and heavy metal contamination of street dust samples from Shanghai, China. Environ Sci Pollut R 26:8958–8970

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Wang G, Chen J, Zhang W, Ren F, Chen Y, Fang A, Ma L (2019a) Magnetic properties of street dust in Shanghai, China and its relationship to anthropogenic activities. Environ Pollut 255:113214

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Wang G, Oldfield F, Xia D, Chen F, Liu X, Zhang W (2012b) Magnetic properties and correlation with heavy metals in urban street dust: a case study from the city of Lanzhou, China. Atmos Environ 46:289–298

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Wang L, Hu S, Ma M, Zhang Y, Wang X, Wang Q, Zhang Z, Cui B, Liu X (2019c) Magnetic characteristics of atmospheric dustfall in a subtropical monsoon climate zone of China and its environmental implications: a case study of Nanjing. Atmos Environ 212:231–238

  63. Wang L, Liu TS, Lü HY (2000) Magnetic susceptibility properties of polluted soils. Chin Sci Bull 45(10):1091–1094

    Google Scholar 

  64. Xia D, Chen F, Bloemendal J, Liu X, Yu Y, Yang L (2008) Magnetic properties of urban dustfall in Lanzhou, China, and its environmental implications. Atmos Environ 42:2198–2207

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Xia DS, Yu Y, Ma JY, Wang G, Yang LP, Jin M, Liu XM, Chen FH (2007) Magnetic characteristics of street dust in Lanzhou and its environmental significance. Environ Sci 28(5):937–944 (in Chinese)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Xie S, Dearing JA, Bloemendal J (2000) The organic matter content of street dust in Liverpool, UK, and its association with dust magnetic properties. Atmos Environ 34:269–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Xinyang Statistics Bureau (2018) Xinyang statistical yearbook statistical. China statistics Press, Beiijng

    Google Scholar 

  68. Zhang C, Huang B, Li Z, Liu H (2006) Magnetic properties of high-road-side pine tree leaves in Beijing and their environmental significance. Chin Sci Bull 51:3041–3052

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Zhang C, Qiao Q, Appel E, Huang B (2012) Discriminating sources of anthropogenic heavy metals in urban street dusts using magnetic and chemical methods. J Geochem Explor 119:60–75

    Google Scholar 

  70. Zhang C, Qiao Q, Piper JD, Huang B (2011) Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods. Environ Pollut 159:3057–3070

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Zhang JH, Wang J, Zhang J, Fang N, Xia DS (2015) Spatial distribution of magnetic properties of street dust in Baoji city and its implications of environment. Environ Sci 36(5):1818–1826 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  72. Zhao G, Han Y, Liu X, Chang L, Lü B, Chen Q, Guo X, Yan J, Yan J (2016) Can the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese Red Clay sequence be used for palaeomonsoon reconstructions? Geophys J Int 204:1421–1429

    Google Scholar 

  73. Zheng Y, Zhang S (2008) Magnetic properties of street dust and topsoil in Beijing and its environmental implications. Chin Sci Bull 53:408–417

    Google Scholar 

  74. Zhou L, Oldfield F, Wintle AG, Robinson SG, Wang JT (1990) Partly pedogenic origin of magnetic variations in Chinese loess. Nature 346:737–739

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. We would like to thank Zhenjin Li, Hainan Zhai, Yuejin Zhang, Dongxu Mu, and Quanyi Sun for collecting the samples.

Funding

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41602187 and 41877435), Funds for Key Young Teachers (2018GGJS-04) and the Nanhu Scholars Program for Young Scholars of XYNU, the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection (STKF-201928), and Postgraduate Education Reform and Quality Improvement Project of Henan Province (HNYJS2020JD14).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yan Han.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Gerhard Lammel

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, G., Zhang, R., Han, Y. et al. Identifying environmental pollution recorded in street dust using the magnetic method: a case study from central eastern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09771-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Street dust
  • Magnetic characteristics
  • Pollution
  • Environmental magnetism
  • Xinyang