Concentrations, Speciation, and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Street Dust as well as Relationships with Physiochemcal Properties: A Case Study of Jinan City in East China

Abstract

A total of 77 street dust samples were collected from Jinan City in East China and were analyzed for the concentrations, speciation, bioavailability, and influencing factors of ten heavy metals. The results showed that the average concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and V in the street dust were 642.77, 8.24, 114.09, 87.71, 1.08, 517.04, 30.29, 80.32, 497.84, and 51.76 mg/kg, and the concentrations of Ba, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn exceeded the local soil element background values. In the street dust, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V were mainly in the residual; Cu and Pb were controlled by the oxidizable; Cd mainly existed in the acid extractable; and Zn was dominated by the reducible. According to the ratios of the acid extractable to the sum of four forms, Cd (39.85%) presented a high environmental risk; Mn and Zn (24.29% and 27.78%) exhibited a medium risk; and V, Cu, Pb, Ba, Co, Ni, and Cr had no environmental risk. The order of mobility or potential risk of heavy metals was Cd ( 85.8%) > Zn (77.1%) > Cu (64.3%) > Pb (62.0%) > Mn (51.7%) > Ba ( 38.9%) > Co (31.2%) > Ni (30.1%) > V (25.8%) > Cr (23.1%), suggesting that Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Mn presented relatively high movability and risk. The bioavailability order of heavy metals was Cd (82.7%) > Zn (63.6%) > Mn (40.4%) > Ni (20.4%) > Pb (11.7%) > Cu (11.1%) > V (7.8%) > Cr (3.7%) in the gastric phase and Cu (24.6%) > Cd (19.9%) > Mn (16.2%) > Ni (6.6%) > Pb (5.7%) > Zn (4.4%) > Cr (3.0%) > V (2.3%) in intestinal phase, implying that Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu were highly bioavailable in the gastrointestinal environment, which coincided with the risk of speciation. The speciation of heavy metals in street dust had certain correlations with their bioavailability. The physiochemical properties of street dust had significant effects on the concentrations, speciation, and bioavailability of heavy metals in street dust. The simple, fast, and nondestructive magnetic measurements could be used as indicators of the concentrations, speciation, and bioavailability of heavy metals in street dust.

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China through Grants 41877516 and 41877517, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities through Grants GK201701010 and GK201601009.

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Dong, S., Zhang, S., Wang, L. et al. Concentrations, Speciation, and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Street Dust as well as Relationships with Physiochemcal Properties: A Case Study of Jinan City in East China. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09761-6

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Keywords

  • Heavy metal
  • Speciation
  • Bioavailability
  • Influencing factor
  • Street dust