Assessment of heavy metals contamination and the risk of non-cancerous diseases in vegetable using electromagnetic-chemical

Abstract

This study seeks to assess the reaction of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) to soil samples contaminated. Following, cultivation, growth, and harvest, the plant samples were prepared and maximum absorption rates of heavy metals were measured in both leaf and fruit. The estimated daily intake (EDI), the target hazard quotient (THQ), and the bio-concentration factor (BCF) were measured at various intervals during the growth period of the plant. Spectral analysis was also performed to assess the reaction of target crops to heavy metals. The results showed that in the second and third stages of plant growth, the THQ values were more than 1 for infected plants with Cd, Pb, and Zn. According to results from the BCF analysis, the absorption rate in Pb, during the growth stages was relatively high, in crops contaminated by Ni was around 1 in the second and third stages, and in plants contaminated by Cd was extremely high. All crops contaminated by heavy metals showed higher reflection rates in the 400–500 and 600–700 nm range. So, using electromagnetic waves during different stages of growth, the reaction of eggplant cultivated in soil samples contaminated by heavy metals is predictable.

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Abbreviations

EDI:

Estimated daily intake

THQ:

Target hazard quotient

BCF:

Bio-concentration factor

PCA:

Principal Component Analysis

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Funding

The authors would like to thank Shiraz University for providing financial support (grant number: 238726-116) for this study.

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Correspondence to Marzieh Mokarram.

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Mokarram, M., Amin, H. & Setoodeh, A. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and the risk of non-cancerous diseases in vegetable using electromagnetic-chemical. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09690-4

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Keywords

  • Heavy metal
  • Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
  • Estimated daily intake (EDI)
  • Target hazard quotient (THQ)
  • Bio-concentration factor (BCF)
  • Electromagnetic wave