Associations of soluble metals and lung and liver toxicity in mice induced by fine particulate matter originating from a petrochemical complex

Abstract

Adverse health effects have been observed in nearby residents due to exposure to petrochemical-derived chemicals. The objective of this study was to examine associations of soluble metals with lung and liver toxicity in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex. PM2.5 was collected in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex of Mailiao Township (Yunlin County, Taiwan) to investigate lung and liver toxicity in BALB/c mice. The PM2.5 concentration was 30.2 ± 11.2 μg/m3, and the PM2.5 was clustered in major local emissions (19.1 μg/m3) and minor local emissions (14.1 μg/m3) using a k-means clustering model. The PM2.5 (50 and 150 μg/kg) and PM2.5-equivalent soluble nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), and lead (Pb) concentrations were intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. PM2.5 and V significantly decreased the tidal volume after exposure (p < 0.05). The peak expiratory flow (PEF) and peak inspiratory flow (PIF)/PEF ratio were significantly altered by 150 μg/kg V (p < 0.05). V and Pb significantly increased total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (p < 0.05). Interleukin (IL)-6 in BALF significantly increased after exposure to Pb (p < 0.05) accompanied by lung inflammatory infiltration. PM2.5 and Pb significantly increased levels of 8-isoprostane (p < 0.05). The level of caspase-3 activity significantly increased after exposure to Pb (p < 0.05). LDH in the liver was significantly increased by PM2.5 (p < 0.05). 8-Isoprostane in the liver was significantly increased by PM2.5 and Pb (p < 0.05). IL-6 in the liver was significantly increased by PM2.5, Ni, V, and Pb after exposure (p < 0.05), accompanied by liver inflammatory infiltration. Our results demonstrated that V in PM2.5 was associated with an increase in 8-isoprostane for all emissions and major local petrochemical emissions. In conclusion, V contributes to in vivo liver toxicity induced by PM2.5 in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Ms. Yi-Syuan Lin, Mr. Guan-Che Wu, and Mrs. Yu-Hua Liao for technical assistance with this research. This paper was financially supported by the “Innovation and Policy Center for Population Health and Sustainable Environment (Population Health Research Center, PHRC), College of Public Health, National Taiwan University” from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Funding

This study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST104-2621-M-038-002-MY3).

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All authors contributed substantially to the concept and design of the study, drafting of the article, and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript for publication.

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Correspondence to Hsiao-Chi Chuang or Chang-Chuan Chan.

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Chuang, H., Shie, R., Lee, C. et al. Associations of soluble metals and lung and liver toxicity in mice induced by fine particulate matter originating from a petrochemical complex. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09644-w

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Inflammation
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Oxidative stress