Increasing plant diversity offsets the influence of coarse sand on ecosystem services in microcosms of constructed wetlands

Abstract

As wastewater treatment systems that strengthen natural processes, constructed wetlands provide both ecosystem services and disservices. Manipulating both the physical and ecological structures of constructed wetlands has been the key to improve ecosystem services while reducing disservices. Herein, an experiment using simulated constructed wetlands was conducted to explore the effect of two different substrate sizes (fine sand or coarse sand), plant richness (1, 3, or 4 species), and plant species identity on ecosystem services. Results indicated that (1) only in microcosms with coarse sand, species richness enhanced nitrogen removal efficiency while reduced nitrous oxide emissions and that (2) the presence of Phalaris arundinacea increased nitrogen removal rate, and the presence of Rumex japonicus or Oenanthe javanica decreased nitrous oxide emissions; (3) however, the net ecosystem services (nitrogen removal, greenhouse gas emissions, biofuel production) of microcosms with fine sand were higher than those of microcosms with coarse sand, and (4) interestingly, there was no difference in net ecosystem services between microcosms with coarse sand (1033 yuan ha−1 day−1; 1 yuan ≈ 0.14 USD) and those with fine sand (1071 yuan ha−1 day−1) for the four-species mixtures. Hence, in practice, ensuring plant species richness with appropriate species in microcosms with coarse sand can improve ecosystem services to a level equal to that of microcosms with fine sand and help to prevent constructed wetlands from clogging.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Abalos D, Deyn GB, Kuyper TW, Van Groenigen JW (2014) Plant species identity surpasses species richness as a key driver of N2O emissions from grassland. Glob Chang Biol 20:265–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Avellán T, Gremillion P (2019) Constructed wetlands for resource recovery in developing countries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 99:42–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ávila C, Nivala J, Olsson C, Kassa K, Headley T, Mueller RA, Bayona JM, García J (2014) Emerging organic contaminants in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of media size, loading frequency and use of active aeration. Sci Total Environ 494–495:211–217

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bouchard V, Frey SD, Gilbert JM, Reed SE (2007) Effects of macrophyte functional group richness on emergent freshwater wetland functions. Ecology. 88:2903–2914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cao WP, Wang YM, Sun L, Jiang JL, Zhang YQ (2016) Removal of nitrogenous compounds from polluted river water by floating constructed wetlands using rice straw and ceramsite as substrates under low temperature conditions. Ecol Eng 88:77–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chang J, Wu X, Liu AQ, Wang Y, Xu B, Yang W, Meyerson LA, Gu BJ, Peng CH, Ge Y (2011) Assessment of net ecosystem services of plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation in China. Ecol Econ 70:740–748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chang J, Fan X, Sun HY, Zhang CB, Song C, Chang SX, Gu BJ, Liu Y, Li D, Wang Y, Ge Y (2014) Plant species richness enhances nitrous oxide emissions in microcosms of constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 64:108–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cheng XL, Peng RH, Chen JQ, Luo YQ, Zhang QF, An SQ, Chen JK, Li B (2007) CH4 and N2O emissions from Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis in experimental mesocosms. Chemosphere. 68:420–427

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Du YY, Pan KX, Yu CC, Luo B, Gu WL, Sun HY, Min Y, Liu D, Geng Y, Han WJ, Chang SX, Liu Y, Li D, Ge Y, Chang J (2018) Plant diversity decreases net global warming potential integrating multiple functions in microcosms of constructed wetlands. J Clean Prod 184:726–728

    Google Scholar 

  10. Faulwetter JL, Gagnon V, Sundberg C, Sundberg C, Chazaren F, Burr MD, Brisson J, Camper AK, Stein OR (2009) Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: a review. Ecol Eng 35:987–1004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Frouz J, Toyota A, Mudrák O, Jílková V, Filipová A, Cajthaml T (2016) Effects of soil substrate quality, microbial diversity and community composition on the plant community during primary succession. Soil Biol Biochem 99:75–84

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. García-Pérez A, Harrison M, Chivers C, Grant B (2015) Recycled shredded-tire chips used as support material in a constructed wetland treating high-strength wastewater from a bakery: case study. Recycling. 1:3–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Geng Y, Ge Y, Luo B, Chen ZX, Min Y, Schmid B, Gu BH, Chang J (2019) Plant diversity increases N removal in constructed wetlands when multiple rather than single N processes are considered. Ecol Appl 29:e01965

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Goedkoop, M., Heijungs, R., Huijbregts, M., De Schryver, A., Struijs, J., Van Zelm, R., 2009. ReCiPe 2008. A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level, first edition

  15. Grace MA, Healy MG, Clifford E (2016) Performance and surface clogging in intermittently loaded and slow sand filters containing novel media. J Environ Manag 180:102–110

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Gutknecht JM, Goodman RM, Balser TC (2006) Linking soil process and microbial ecology in freshwater wetland ecosystems. Plant Soil 289:17–34

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Han WJ, Shi MM, Chang J, Ren Y, Xu RH, Zhang CB, Ge Y (2017) Plant diversity reduces N2O but not CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands under high nitrogen levels. Environ Sci Pollut R 24:1–11

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Han WJ, Luo GY, Luo B, Yu CC, Wang H, Chang J, Ge Y (2019) Effects of plant diversity on greenhouse gas emissions in microcosms simulating vertical constructed wetlands with high ammonium loading. J Environ Sci:229–237

  19. Hartmann A, Schmid M, Tuinen DV, Berg G (2009) Plant-driven selection of microbes. Plant Soil 321:235–257

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hua GF, Zhao ZW, Kong J, Guo R, Zeng YT, Zhao LF, Zhu QD (2014) Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Pollut R 21:13017–13026

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Huang X, Liu CX, Wang Z, Gao CF, Zhu GF, Liu L (2013) The effects of different substrates on ammonium removal in constructed wetlands: a comparison of their physicochemical characteristics and ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotic communities. Clean - Soil Air Wat 41:283–290

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. IPCC (2014) Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kizito S, Lv T, Wu S, Ajmal Z, Luo H, Dong R (2017) Treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in biochar-packed vertical flow constructed wetland columns: role of substrate and tidal operation. Sci Total Environ 592:197–205

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Knowles P, Dotro G, Nivala J, García J (2011) Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contributing factors. Ecol Eng 37:99–112 landscapes. Philos. T. R. Soc. B. 371, 20,150,267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Liu D, Wu X, Chang J, Gu BJ, Min Y, Ge Y, Shi Y, Xue H, Peng CH, Wu JG (2012) Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems. Nat Clim Chang 2:190–194

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lu S, Zhang X, Wang J, Pei L (2016) Impacts of different substrate on constructed wetlands for rural household sewage treatment. J Clean Prod 127:325–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Luo B, Ge Y, Han WJ, Fan X, Ren Y, Du YY, Shi MM, Chang J (2016) Decreases in ammonia volatilization in response to greater plant diversity in microcosms of constructed wetlands. Atmos Environ 142:414–419

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005) Ecosystem and human wellbeing: synthesis. World Resource Institute, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  29. Mancl KM, Rector D (1999) Sand bioreactors for wastewater treatment for Ohio communities. In: Bulletin 876. Ohio State University Extension, Columbus

    Google Scholar 

  30. Maucieri C, Barbera AC, Vymazal J, Borin M (2017) A review on the main affecting factors of greenhouse gases emission in constructed wetlands. Agric For Meteorol 236:175–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Niklaus PA, Roux XL, Poly F, Buchmann N, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Weigelt A, Barnard RL (2016) Plant species diversity affects soil-atmosphere fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide. Oecol. 181:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Saeed T, Muntaha S, Rashid M, Sun G, Hasnat A (2018) Industrial wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands packed with construction materials and agricultural by-products. J Clean Prod 189:442 S0959652618311429

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Sevda S, Sreekishnan TR, Pous N, Puig S, Pant D (2018) Bio-electric mediation of perchlorate and nitrate contaminated water: a review. Bioresour Technol 255:331

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Sun HY, Zhang CB, Song CC, Chang SX, Gu BJ, Chen ZX, Peng CH, Chang J, Ge Y (2013) The effects of plant diversity on nitrous oxide emissions in hydroponic microcosms. Atmos Environ 77:544–547

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Tan E, Hsu TC, Huang X, Lin HJ, Kao SJ (2017) Nitrogen transformations and removal efficiency enhancement of a constructed wetland in subtropical Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 601:1378–1388

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Tilman D, Hill J, Lehman C (2006) Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input highdiversity grassland biomass. Science. 314:1598

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Tilman D, Isbell F, Cowles JM (2014) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 45:471–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Torrens A, Molle P, Boutin C, Salgot M (2009) Impact of design and operation variables on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters treating pond effluent. Water Res 43:1851–1858

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Truu M, Juhanson J, Truu J (2009) Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 407:3958–3971

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Vymazal J (2007) Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 380:48–65

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Vymazal J (2013) Vegetation development in subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic. Ecol Eng 61:575–581

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Wang YH, Song XS, Liao WH, Niu RH, Wang W, Ding Y, Wang Y, Yan DH (2014) Impacts of inlet–outlet configuration, flow rate and filter size on hydraulic behavior of quasi-2-dimensional horizontal constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 69:177–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Yang W, Chang J, Xu B, Peng CH, Ge Y (2008) Ecosystem service value assessment for constructed wetlands: a case study in Hangzhou. China Ecol Econ 68:116–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Yang Y, Zhao Y, Liu R, Morgan D (2018) Global development of various emerged substrates utilized in constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol 261:441–452

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Ye JF, Xu ZX, Chen H, Wang L, Benoit G (2018) Reduction of clog matter in constructed wetlands by metabolism of Eisenia foetida: process and modeling. Environ Pollut 238:803–811

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Zhang CB, Sun HY, Ge Y, Gu BJ, Wang H, Chang J (2012) Plant species richness enhanced the methane emission in experimental microcosms. Atmos Environ 62:180–183

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Zhang X, Guo L, Wang Y, Ruan C (2015) Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment. Sci Rep 5:15,146

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Zhao ZY, Chang J, Han WJ, Wang M, Ma DP, Du YY, Qu ZL, Chang SX, Ge Y (2016) Effects of plant diversity and sand particle size on methane emission and nitrogen removal in microcosms of constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 95:390–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Zhou XH, Wang GX (2010) Nutrient concentration variations during Oenanthe javanica growth and decay in the ecological floating bed system. J Environ Sci 22:1710–1717

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Zhu WL, Cui LH, Ouyang Y, Long CF, Tang XD (2011) Kinetic adsorption of ammonium nitrogen by substrate materials for constructed wetlands. Pedos. 21:454–463

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31670329, 31770434, and 41901242).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jie Chang.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Alexandros Stefanakis

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 121 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Du, Y., Luo, B., Han, W. et al. Increasing plant diversity offsets the influence of coarse sand on ecosystem services in microcosms of constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09592-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Substrate particle size
  • Species richness
  • Species identity
  • Nitrogen removal
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Methane