Dietary supplementation of Sargassum latifolium modulates thermo-respiratory response, inflammation, and oxidative stress in bacterial endotoxin-challenged male Barki sheep


Endotoxemia is mainly caused by translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the bloodstream. This in turn enhances systemic inflammation and inappropriate production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative injury of vital internal organs and other dangerous effects that can be life-threatening. Here, we evaluated/compared the modulatory effects of consuming two different doses (2% and 4% of the diet) of brown seaweeds (Sargassum latifolium) for 40 consecutive days on thermo-respiratory response, inflammation, and oxidative stress in Barki male sheep (Ovis aries) challenged twice with bacterial LPS (1.25 μg/kg body weight, injected intravenously on days 28 and 35 of the experimental period). The results showed that the diet containing Sargassum latifolium (especially at 4%) modulated significantly (P < 0.05–0.001) the increase in the thermo-respiratory response (skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate) and the obtained systemic inflammation (blood leukocytosis, the elevation in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the increase in serum proinflammatory cytokines and heat shock protein-70 concentrations) in the LPS-challenged sheep. In addition, it improved significantly (P < 0.001, especially at 4%) the total antioxidant capacity of the blood of LPS-challenged sheep by increasing the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Moreover, it decreased the blood markers of tissue damage (malondialdehyde concentration and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase) in the LPS-challenged sheep. In conclusion, the diet containing 4% Sargassum latifolium may have potential impact in protecting the ruminant livestock from the serious effects of endotoxemia through improving the animals’ antioxidant defense system and regulating their inflammatory and thermo-respiratory responses.

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Alanine aminotransferase




Cluster of differentiation number 14




Erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Heat shock protein




Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor




Lactate dehydrogenase


Lipid peroxidation






The reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells




Reactive oxygen species


Respiration rate


Rectal temperature


Superoxide dismutase


Skin temperature


Total antioxidant capacity


Toll-like receptor


Tumor necrosis factor


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Author information




G. R. and A. M. E. planned the study, designed all experiments, and summarized, discussed, and interpreted the results. W. A. F. and W. M. I. collected, identified, and characterized the brown seaweeds. W. A. F. carried out the experiments, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript with assistance from G. R and A. M. E.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gamal Ramadan.

Ethics declarations

The animals were housed in suitable yards under veterinary care according to the program of the Ministry of Agriculture; and the study design was carried out in accordance with the EC Directive 86/609/EEC guidelines for the animal experiments and approved by the Research Ethics Committee at Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (6/2014), prior to the commencement of the study.

Conflict of Interest

Patent registration number: 1716/2019 (Patent Office, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Ministry of Scientific Research, Cairo, Egypt); inventors (authors): Wafaa A. Fouda, Gamal Ramadan, Ashgan M. Ellamie and Wael M. Ibrahim. The authors have no other potential financial conflict of interest

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Ramadan, G., Fouda, W.A., Ellamie, A.M. et al. Dietary supplementation of Sargassum latifolium modulates thermo-respiratory response, inflammation, and oxidative stress in bacterial endotoxin-challenged male Barki sheep. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020).

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  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides
  • Barki sheep
  • Brown seaweed
  • Oxidative stress
  • Systemic inflammation
  • Thermo-respiratory response