Ground shells of almonds (ALM), hazelnuts (HAZ), walnuts (WAL), and chestnuts (CHE), coconut fiber (COC), spent coffee grounds (COF), and clementine peel (CLE) were used to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) from both water and an ethanol/water mixture (14:86, v/v). Other very efficient adsorbents like wood biochar (BC) and hydrochar (HC) and a humic acid (HA) were also adopted as a comparison. In batch experiments, sorption of OTA from water followed the trend BC (100% removed) > HA > CLE > COC > HC > COF > ALM > HAZ > CHE > WAL (8% removed), whereas sorption of OTA from ethanol/water mixture (14:86, v/v) onto only the raw materials was COC (54% removed) > CLE > HAZ > ALM > COF > CHE > WAL (0.4% removed). The desorption of the toxin from all materials in water was rather low. Afterwards, sorption kinetics and isotherms of OTA onto CLE, COC, and COF were performed. The three materials adsorbed OTA in about 2 h according to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, thus indicating the occurrence of a chemisorption mechanism. Equilibrium sorption data of OTA onto CLE followed preferentially the Freundlich model, whereas those on COC and COF fitted well both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms (r > 0.996). The values of Freundlich sorption constants, KFads, for CLE, COC, and COF were 313, 202, and 98 L kg−1, respectively. OTA desorption from each of the three materials showed hysteretic effects. Overall findings of this work suggest that raw plant wastes could be effectively used as biosorbents to abate the level of OTA in liquid media.
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This work was founded by University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy. The authors thank Mr. Adriano Boghetich of DICATECh, Politecnico di Bari for performing SEM analysis. The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions.
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Loffredo, E., Scarcia, Y. & Parlavecchia, M. Removal of ochratoxin A from liquid media using novel low-cost biosorbents. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09544-z
- Ochratoxin A
- Toxin removal
- Sorption kinetics
- Sorption isotherm