Chemical fractionation and risk assessment of surface sediments in Luhun Reservoir, Luoyang city, China

Abstract

To understand the potential risks of heavy metals, including their bioavailability and toxicity, 15 surface sediment samples were collected from Luhun Reservoir in Luoyang city, China. Total concentrations and chemical fractions of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were analyzed. Various rating methods were used to evaluate the degree, risk, and toxicity of the heavy metal pollution. Results showed that Cd and Pb were preferentially associated with exchangeable (55.77–69.76%) and reducible (53.54–69.43%) fractions, respectively, and therefore exhibited high potential availability. Cr (57.14–86.56%) and Ni (32.21–72.77%) occurred primarily in the residual fraction. Metal concentrations in the effective fraction of the sediment decreased in the order: Cd (96.32%) > Pb (91.61%) > Cu (64.54%) > Zn (57.23%) > Ni (41.51%) > Cr (21.68%). Risk assessment indicated that the risk for Cd is extremely high (62.96%); Cu, Pb, and Zn are ranked as medium risk. Based on the potential ecological risk index, these metals (especially Cd) showed higher potential risk near the dam region. Toxic unit values (2.89–6.05) in more than 60% of sediment sites exceeded a value of 4, and Pb had a relatively higher contribution (1.06–2.65). Cd and Pb are the main contaminants in sediments of Luhun Reservoir and should be paid more attention in the future.

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Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41907267 and 51979107), the Henan Province University Scientific and Technological Innovation Team (Grant No. 18IRTSTHN009), and the Foundation for University Key Youth Teachers of Henan Province of China (Grant No. 2018GGJS077). We thank Kathryn Sole, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Gangfu Song or Chao Zhang.

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Wang, M., Song, G., Zhang, C. et al. Chemical fractionation and risk assessment of surface sediments in Luhun Reservoir, Luoyang city, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09512-7

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Keywords

  • Luhun Reservoir
  • Sediment
  • Heavy metal
  • Chemical fraction
  • Risk assessment