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Performance of butyl rubber–based macroporous sorbents as passive samplers

Abstract

In this study, two macroporous butyl rubber (BR)–based sorbents prepared in benzene (H-BR) and in cyclohexane (L-BR) with different porosities were synthesized by cryogelation technique. Their performances as a passive sampler were studied and then compared with commercially available silicon rubber (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) passive sampler. For that aim, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption rates of the sorbents in the short-term and their accumulation capacities in the long-term periods were investigated. Four PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) with a different number of aromatic rings were utilized. The concentrations of the PAHs in solutions were quantified by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results showed that the BR sampler prepared in benzene (H-BR) generally has the highest absorption rates for all PAHs. The rate constants k (h−1) of the H-BR, L-BR, and PDMS samplers were found as 1.07, 0.55, and 0.55 for naphthalene; 0.73, 0.16, and 0.09 for phenanthrene; 0.24, 0.26, and 0.08 for fluoranthene; and 0.97, 0.38, and 0.17 for pyrene, respectively. The highest PAH absorption capacity was found for the BR sorbents prepared in benzene for all PAHs. Thus, benzene was selected as the organic solvent rather than cyclohexane for further studies in the preparation of butyl rubber–based samplers. The H-BR possessing the highest absorption rate and capacity underlines their usage as a capable passive sampler for both short- and long-term monitoring activities in the aquatic environments.

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Funding

This research was funded by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), CAYDAG, 117Y099.

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Correspondence to Oktay E. Tureyen.

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Tureyen, O.E., Yilmaz, A., Yakan, S.D. et al. Performance of butyl rubber–based macroporous sorbents as passive samplers. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 3766–3773 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08945-4

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Keywords

  • Passive samplers
  • Butyl rubber sorbents
  • PAH
  • Organic pollutants
  • Marine monitoring
  • Absorption kinetics