Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 3262–3291 | Cite as

Synthesis and applications of nano-TiO2: a review

  • Muhammad Tayyab NomanEmail author
  • Muhammad Azeem Ashraf
  • Azam Ali
Review Article


TiO2-based nanomaterials have attracted prodigious attention as a photocatalysts in numerous fields of applications. In this thematic issue, the mechanism behind the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 as well as the critical properties have been reviewed in details. The synthesis routes and the variables that affect the size and crystallinity of nano-TiO2 have also been discussed in detail. Moreover, a newly emerged class of color TiO2, TiO2 in aerogel form, nanotubes form, doped and undoped form, and other forms of TiO2 have been discussed in details. Photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications and the type of nano-TiO2 that is more suitable for these applications have been discussed in this review.


Nano-TiO2 Photocatalysis Photovoltaic Nanocomposites DSSC 







Scanning electron microscopy


Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


Titanium tetrachloride


Titanium tetraisopropoxide


Ethylene glycol


Methylene blue


Transmission electron microscopy


Titanium dioxide, titania


Resulting nanoparticles


X-ray diffractometry










Degree Celsius






Kelvin per second

mj m−2

Millijoule per square meter


Titanium tetrachloride

m2 g−1

Meter square per gram


Electron volts


Hydroxyl radical


Super oxide anion





S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

E. coli

Escherichia coli


Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards


Nitrogen dioxide


Carbon dioxide


Chemical oxygen demand


Reactive oxygen species




Three dimensional


Two dimensional




Electron paramagnetic resonance


TiO2 nanotubes


Triethanol amine


Power of hydrogen

C. albicans

Candida albicans


Methyl orange


Rhodamine B


High-resolution transmission electron microscope


Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis


Fluorine-doped tin oxide


Atomic force microscopy


Tetraethylammonium hydroxides


Tetraalkylammonium hydroxides








Tetrabutylammonium hydroxides


Sodium hydroxide


Commercially available TiO2




Flame spray pyrolysis


Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis




Butane tetracarboxylic acid


Citric acid




Dye-sensitized solar cell


Quantum dot-sensitized solar cell


Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Solar light-to-power conversion efficiency


Short-circuit photocurrent


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Material EngineeringTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Fibre and Textile TechnologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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