Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 24, pp 24305–24315 | Cite as

Toxic effects of cyhalofop-butyl on embryos of the Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio var.): alters embryos hatching, development failure, mortality of embryos, and apoptosis

  • Xiaohua Xia
  • Peijin Wang
  • Ruyan Wan
  • Weiran Huo
  • Zhongjie Chang
Research Article


As a universal environmental contaminant, the herbicide cyhalofop-butyl is considered to have infested effects on the embryonic development of aquatic species. The present study focused on an assessment of the impacts of cyhalofop-butyl on Yellow River carp embryos. It was found that cyhalofop-butyl inhibited the hatching of the embryos, and the hatching rate decreased with higher concentrations of the herbicide. The mortality rate was increased on exposure to cyhalofop-butyl and was significantly higher in the 1.6 and 2 mg/L treatment groups over 48 h. All of the embryos of the 2 mg/L treatment group died within the 48 h post-hatching stage. And the transcription of several embryos related to apoptosis was also influenced by cyhalofop-butyl exposure. Further, cyhalofop-butyl exposure leads to a series of morphological changes (pericardial edema, tail deformation, and spine deformation) in embryos, which were consistent with significant modifications in the associated genes. These results provided a scientific basis for further studies into the effects of cyhalofop-butyl on aquatic organisms.


Cyhalofop-butyl Yellow River carp Developmental toxicity Apoptosis Gene expression 


Funding information

This work is supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31200923), Young Core Instructor Foundation of Henan Normal University (no. 5101049470610), and Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in University of Henan Province (no. 17IRTSTHN017).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2489_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (27 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 (JPG 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaohua Xia
    • 1
  • Peijin Wang
    • 1
  • Ruyan Wan
    • 1
  • Weiran Huo
    • 1
  • Zhongjie Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular and Genetic Laboratory, College of Life ScienceHenan Normal UniversityXinxiangPeople’s Republic of China

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