Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 21, pp 21195–21204 | Cite as

Residue behavior and risk assessment of thifluzamide in the maize field ecosystem

  • Cong Ma
  • Zhongdong Liu
  • Yan Qi
  • Shanshan Wang
  • Xiaolin Cao
  • Jing Wang
  • Yongxin She
  • Yong Shao
  • Jitai Shen
  • Chao Zhang
  • Zejun Jiang
Research Article


In the present work, the dissipation kinetics and final residue levels of thifluzamide in the maize field ecosystem were investigated. Using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS), a rapid, sensitive, efficient, and reliable method for extraction and quantitative analysis of thifluzamide residues in maize grain, maize plant, and soil was developed. Satisfactory recoveries of 78.7–97.0% were achieved with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1.6 to 8.2%. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.002–0.005 and 0.010 mg kg−1, respectively. The dissipation kinetics of thifluzamide in maize plant was well fitted by the first-order kinetic model with short half-lives of 0.19–0.22 days, while thifluzamide degraded slowly in soil with half-lives of 4.56–15.85 days. The final residues in maize grain, maize plant, and soil samples collected at the milk stage and the physiological maturity stage were no more than 0.010, 0.807, and 0.278 mg kg−1, respectively. Given that no maximum residue limit (MRL) for thifluzamide in maize has been established, the safety of this fungicide application was estimated by a dietary risk assessment. The hazard quotient was 0.03%, which was substantially less than 1, indicating that the long-term risk induced by the thifluzamide application on maize at the recommended dose is negligible. These results help governments to develop regulations for the safe use of thifluzamide.


Thifluzamide Dissipation behavior Final residues Risk assessment Maize LC-MS/MS Modified QuEChERS extraction 



This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFD0400800), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31401590), and the Central Public-Interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund (No. 1610072017007).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2211_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
Fig. S1 LC-MS/MS chromatograms of thifluzamide: blank maize plant (a), standard in maize plant at 0.100 mg kg−1 (b), maize plant spiked at 0.100 mg kg−1 (c), maize plant sample collected in Heilongjiang after 10 days of the application (d), blank soil (e), standard in soil at 0.100 mg kg−1 (f), soil spiked at 0.100 mg kg−1 (g), and soil sample collected after 28 days of the last application at the milk stage (field site: Henan; spray frequency: 2; application dose: 202.5 g a.i. ha−1) (h) (DOC 1175 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Science and Technology, Grain CollegeHenan University of TechnologyZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-ProductsChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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